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Johan Galtung (born 24 October 1930) is a Norwegian sociologist and the principal founder of the discipline of peace and conflict studies. He founded the Peace Research Institute Oslo in 1959, serving as its Director until 1970, and established the Journal of Peace Research in 1964. In 1969 he was appointed to the world's first chair in peace and conflict studies, at the University of Oslo. He resigned his professorship in 1977 and has since held professorships at several universities around the world. Galtung is a prolific researcher, having made contributions to many branches of sociology. He has published more than 1000 articles and over 100 books.[non-primary source needed] He was awarded the Alternative Nobel Prize in 1987, and has received many other accolades. He is currently a resident of France and the United States.