Electric Charge
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Electric Charge

Abu Dhabi : United Arab Emirates | Jul 22, 2011 at 11:01 AM PDT
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10. Ampere's Law

Electric Charge is a property of a matter due to which it gets some amount of force when other electric charge comes near to it. Electric charge have two types , which are Positive and Negative. When two positive charged items comes near to each other, they experience repulsive force (Force of repulsion) as do two negatively charged objects. But if two opposite charges produce attractive force across them (Force of attraction). The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb which is denoted by (C), The is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fieldsThe interaction between an electromagnetic field and a moving charge is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is the one of the other four fundamental forces.Experiments of Twentieth-century demonstrated that the electric charge is quantized and it comes in multiples of individual small units which are called elementary charge and it is approximately equal to 1.602×10−19 coulombs (C) The study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is quantum electrodynamics.Electric Charge induced by a positive electric chargeElectric field induced by a negative electric chargeCharge is the fundamental property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter. Electric charge is a characteristic property of many subatomic. The charges of free-standing particles are integer multiples of the elementary charge e; we say that electric charge is quantized. Michael Faraday, in his electrolysis experiments, was the first to note the discrete nature of electric charge. Robert Millikan’s oil-drop experiment demonstrated this fact directly, and measured the elementary charge.By convention, the charge of an electron is −1, while that of a proton is +1. Charged particles whose charges have the same sign repel one another, and particles whose charges have different signs attract. Coulomb’s law quantifies the electrostatic force between two particles by asserting that the force is proportional to the product of their charges, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.The charge of an antiparticle equals that of the corresponding particle, but with opposite sign. Quarks have fractional charges of either −1⁄3 or +2⁄3, but free-standing quarks have never been observed (the theoretical reason for this fact is asymptotic freedom).The electric charge of a macroscopic object is the sum of the electric charges of the particles that make it up. This charge is often small, because matter is made of atoms, and atoms typically have equal numbers of protons and electrons, in which case their charges cancel out, yielding a net charge of zero, thus making the atom neutral.An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net positive charge (cation), or that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge (anion).Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms, while polyatomic ions are formed from two or more atoms that have been bonded together, in each case yielding an ion with a positive or negative net charge.During the formation of macroscopic objects, usually the constituent atoms and ions will combine in such a manner that they form structures composed of neutral ionic compounds electrically bound to neutral atoms. Thus macroscopic objects tend toward being neutral overall, but macroscopic objects are rarely perfectly net neutral.There are times when macroscopic objects contain ions distributed throughout the material, rigidly bound in place, giving an overall net positive or negative charge to the object. Also, macroscopic objects made of conductive elements, can more or less easily (depending on the element) take on or give off electrons, and then maintain a net negative or positive charge indefinitely. When the net electric charge of an object is non-zero and motionless, the phenomenon is known as static electricity. This can easily be produced by rubbing two dissimilar materials together, such as rubbing amber with fur or glass with silk. In this way non-conductive materials can be charged to a significant degree, either positively or negatively. Of course, charge taken from one material is simply moved to the other material, leaving an opposite charge of the same magnitude behind. The law of conservation of charge always applies, giving the object from which a negative charge has been taken a positive charge of the same magnitude, and vice-versa.Even when an object’s net charge is zero, charge can be distributed non-uniformly in the object (e.g., due to an external electromagnetic field, or bound polar molecules). In such cases the object is said to be polarized. The charge due to polarization is known as bound charge, while charge on an object produced by electrons gained or lost from outside the object is called free charge. The motion of electrons in conductive metals in a specific direction is known as electric current.The SI unit of quantity of electric charge is the coulomb, which is equivalent to about 6.242×1018

e (e is the charge of a proton). Hence, the charge of an electron is approximately −1.602×10−19

C. The coulomb is defined as the quantity of charge that has passed through the cross section of an electrical conductor carrying one ampere within one second. The symbol Q is often used to denote a quantity of electricity or charge. The quantity of electric charge can be directly measured with an electrometer, or indirectly measured with ballistic.Coulomb's torsion balance, Electric Charge, positive electric charge, negative electric charge, electron, proton, neutron, Static electricity and electric current, charge electric, electrically charged, electric charges,Thales of Miletus around 600 BC, charge (orelectricity) could be accumulated by rubbing fur on various substances, such as amber. The Greeks noted that the charged amber buttons could attract light objects such as hair. They also noted that if they rubbed the amber for long enough, they could even get an electric spark to jump. This property derives from the turboelectric effect.In 1600, the English scientist William Gilbert returned to the subject in De Magnete, and coined the New Latin word electricus from ηλεκτρον (elektron), the Greek word for “amber”, which soon gave rise to the English words “electric” and “electricity.” He was followed in 1660 by Otto von Guericke, who invented what was probably the first electrostatic generator. Other European pioneers were Robert Boyle, who in 1675 stated that electric attraction and repulsion can act across a vacuum; Stephen Gray, who in 1729 classified materials as conductors and insulators; and C. F. du Fay, who proposed in 1733 that electricity came in two varieties which cancelled each other, and expressed this in terms of a two-fluid theory. When glass was rubbed with silk, du Fay said that the glass was charged with vitreous electricity, and when amber was rubbed with fur, the amber was said to be charged with resinous electricity. In 1839, Michael Faraday showed that the apparent division between static, current electricity and bioelectricity was incorrect, and all were a consequence of the behavior of a single kind of electricity appearing in opposite polarities. It is arbitrary which polarity you call positive and which you call negative. Positive charge can be defined as the charge left on a glass rod after being rubbed with silk.One of the foremost experts on electricity in the 18th century was Benjamin Franklin, who argued in favour of a one-fluid theory of electricity. Franklin imagined electricity as being a type of invisible fluid present in all matter; for example he believed that it was the glass in a Leyden jar that held the accumulated charge. He posited that rubbing insulating surfaces together caused this fluid to change location, and that a flow of this fluid constitutes an electric current. He also posited that when matter contained too little of the fluid it was “negatively” charged, and when it had an excess it was “positively” charged. Arbitrarily (or for a reason that was not recorded) he identified the term “positive” with vitreous electricity and “negative” with resinous electricity. William Watson arrived at the same explanation at about the same time. No comments [Comments are now closed for this post] Posted by Admin - July 3, 2011 at 7:30 pm Categories: Basic Electronics, Electronics Definitions Tags: charge electric, Definition of Electric Charge, Electric Charge, electric charges, electrically charged, electron, negative electric charge, neutron, positive electric charge, proton, Static electricity and electric current Comments are closed.Powered by Iftikhar Hussain. Copyright © electrapk.com 2011www.electrapk.com

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