Robert Nesta Marley , said Bob ( Nine Mile , 6 February 1945 - Miami , 11 May 1981 ) was a songwriter , guitarist and activist Jamaican .
It is generally identified with the type of music reggae , which also made him popular outside of Jamaica . In recognition of his merits, a month after his death he was awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit . Many of his songs are about because of the struggles of the poor and marginalized from power.
Its business began in 1964 he played in the band The Wailers , after the band broke up occurred in 1974 sounds likeand The Wailers . In 2008 was placed at 19th place in the list of the top 100 singers of Rolling Stone , among his best "vocals" There are No Woman, No Cry and Redemption Song .
Bob Marley was born in Nine Mile in Jamaica in 1945 by Father British mother and Jamaican .
In its short existence has had the merit of bringing to the fore the global reggae , music genre born from the mix of ska , a native of the Caribbean island, with the music and culture heritage of African slaves arrived during the British colonization.
With the Wailers , a band composed of, among others,, played everywhere around the world. In his music you can feel the struggle against oppression and racial politics and the desire to unify all people of color as the only way to achieve freedom, equality of rights.
The political aspect of his life was, if possible, far more important than artistic. Marley became a political leader, spiritual and religious. In 1978 he was awarded, on behalf of 500 million Africans, the Medal of Peace from the United Nations . That same year, met during a concert, all the different factions that fought in the suburbs of Kingston.
The greater the reward obtained in 1980 when he was invited to participate in the celebration of the Independence of Zimbabwe .
Robert Nesta Marley was born in the village of Rhoden Hall located at the foot of the hills of Nine Miles in the region of St. Ann's Bay , in Jamaica, North America, it is assumed 6 February 1945  , although it is fully secure. His father, Norval Sinclair Marley, was a white Jamaican descent English , born in 1895 from parents originating in Sussex . Norval was a captain in the navy , as well as a superintendent of the plantation , when he married Cedella Booker , then eighteen year old Jamaican colors.
Their relationship caused a scandal at once, the Marley family, discovered the link between Cedella and Norval, decided to remove and disinherit his son. At first Norval provided for the economic livelihood of his wife and son, although rarely see them, being on the go. But then he decided to abandon Cedella, so in 1944 he left his wife and finally went to Kingston with his wife without giving the new address, so Cedella would remain alone without support and pregnant. The two would be reviewed only once on the occasion of the birth of Bob  . Bob was just 10 years old when his father died of a heart attack in 1955 at the age of 60 years.
Cedella nevertheless not blame her husband, saying  :
" It will remain a good man, compelled to act badly by his family and the rules of society "
( Cedella Booker )
Bob, however, always retain a sense of rejection towards his father  :
" I had no father. Ever known ... My father was like those stories you read, the stories of slaves: the white man who takes the black woman and impregnates "
( Bob Marley )
Robert was a victim of racial prejudice as a young man because of his mixed racial origins, and faced the question of his racial identity throughout his life. He once said:
" I do not have prejudice against myself. My father was white and my mother was black. They call me half-caste, or something like that. But I do not side with anyone, not for the white man nor the black man. I am on the side of God who created me and made sure I came to be generated from black to white. "
In the early fifties Cedella Rhoden Hall decided to leave to go to the city: at the Omeriah father opposed the decision, but subsequently took note of her daughter's strong will to move. He suggested only for the sake of his son to finish school at Bob Rhoden Hall . Meanwhile, the mother moved to Trenchtown , a suburb of Kingston , the capital of Jamaica , and Bob would join two years later, at age 12. Degradation and despair that characterized the city, the conditions were described by Trenchtown Bob in this way :
" Jamaica is not in Trenchtown, Trenchtown is everywhere, why is the place from which they are all the dispossessed, the desperate, why is the Trenchtown ghetto, is any ghetto in any city ... And if you were born in Trenchtown, you will not have the slightest chance of succeeding "
( Bob Marley )
Here, as in the slums of Kingston, born of feelings toward the system by the young blacks who lived on the margins of society: the rude boys , Afro-Caribbean young people who show their opposition to the culture and order through the refusal of work and conducting a life full of gimmicks, making provocative antics and petty crime . The ideal anti-later system will be characteristic of the movement Rasta , which does not assume, however, so violent connotations . Marley, however, not approached these young people, however, did not fail groped them away from violence and their negative attitude to the texts of some of his songs. In 1967, Marley converted from Christianity to Rastafarianism . He was forced to learn ' self-defense , as was the victim of repeated episodes of bullying , is caused by racial, and from its below-average stature (he was tall 163 cm ). Thus failed to gain a reputation because of his physical strength, which brought him the nickname "Tuff Gong".
At 15 years young Bob left school and started work as an electrician, also shook a great friendship with Neville O'Riley Livingston , "Bunny" to his friends, who lived with his father and his eight brothers Thaddeus Livingstone in Second Street, next to Bob and his mother. Bunny started the music and singing: he did participate in religious songs, introduced him to the world of stringed instruments and made him listen to the successes of the moment through a channel of New Orleans  .
The musical education Marley was in this context of poverty. Bunny is arranged, did not have the means to buy a guitar or a radio so good to build something with the shape of a guitar drew the sounding board carved from a bark, a bamboo handle for grip and electric wires as strings  . But this did not stop the two friends to get in touch with the world of music indeed, thanks to an old radio set, they were able to listen to the& groups like the Impressions , and even . Bob was created with this mix its musical culture  .
In their spare time, Bob and Bunny were playing with Joe Higgs , a local singer and devout Rastafari who is recognized by many as a mentor to Bob. During a jam session with Higgs and Livingston that Marley met Peter McIntosh, later known as Peter Tosh , who had similar musical ambitions.
In 1962 , at the age of 16 years, Bob recorded his first two singles, " Judge Not and One Cup of Coffee , with local music producer, Leslie Kong . These discs, which were released by Beverley's under the pseudonym of Bobby Martell, attracted little attention from the market.
In 1963 Bob Marley, Bunny Livingston , Peter Tosh , Junior Braithwaite , Beverley Kelso and Cherry Smith founded a group ska and rocksteady called "The Teenagers" and later, the name was changed to "The Wailing Rudeboys", then " The Wailing Wailers "in 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso and Smith left the band, which changed the name to" The Wailers ". In 1974, after leaving the band, Peter Tosh and Bunny "Wailer" Livingston, to pursue solo careers, Marley played with other musicians, including Chaltron "Charly" Barrett on drums, Aston "Familyman to Barret bass, Al Andersonn and Junior Marvin on guitar, Alvin "Seeco" Pattersonn on percussion and backing vocals "I Threes" Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths and his wife Rita Andersonn under the name "Bob Marley and The Wailers." During these sessions there was also the inclusion of other musicians in the brass section which Vin Gordon on trombone and Glen Da Costa on sax.
[ edit ] Early successes
Haile Selassie I , the central figure of religion Rastafari
Marley then became the group's leader, singer, and author of most of the texts. Most of the early work of the group, including the first single Simmer Down , was produced by Coxsone Dodd at Studio One . Simmer Down reached the peak of the Jamaican charts in 1964 and the Wailers were proposed as the best home team. They continued with songs like " Soul Rebel "and" 400 Years ".
In 1966 she married Bob Marley Alpharita Constance Anderson , known here as Rita Marley, a component of the I Threes (Rita Marley, Marcia Griffiths and Judy Mowatt) singers of the group. Since she has had three of his thirteen children (two adopted from Rita's previous report, three had the same, and 8 others with other women), including David, Ziggy Marley , Stephen Marley and, continuing the tradition of father's music with their band, the Melody Makers .
After the wedding , the couple moved for a few months in the residence of the mother of Bob in Wilmington , in Delaware . After returning to Jamaica, Bob joined the movement Rastafarian and began to show off his distinctive dreadlocks . After a quarrel with Dodd, Bob Marley and the rest of the group joined the band of Lee "Scratch" Perry , The Upsetters . Although the partnership lasted less than a year, many believe that the Wailers' finest focus at this time. Marley and Perry split after a dispute over charges for registration, but still remain friends and work together.
Between 1968 and 1972 , Bob and Rita Marley, Peter McIntosh and Bunny Livingston produced a re-cut some old songs for JAD Records in Kingston and London , in order to export the sound of the Wailers. Later, Livingston confessed:
"Those songs were never meant to be published on an album ... it was only the demo to do listen to the record labels ..." [ citation needed ]
The Wailers' first album, Catch a Fire , was released worldwide in 1973 , and sold well. It was followed a year later by Burnin ' , which included the songs " Get Up, Stand Up "and" I Shot the Sheriff "inproduced a cover, helping to raise the international profile of Bob Marley.
The Wailers broke up in 1974 , when each of the three basic components tried to continue his solo career. The reasons lie still in the mystery of dissolution. Someone claims that there was disagreement between Marley, Tosh and Livingston about the performance, others simply feel thatand Peter Tosh preferred so solo work.
[ edit ] Success soloist and international consecration
The star is dedicated to Bob Marley on the Walk of Fame in Hollywood
Despite the split, Bob Marley went on to play under the name "Bob Marley & the Wailers." The new members of the support band were the brothers Carlton and, called "Family Man", respectively the drums and bass , Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on guitar , Tyrone Downie and Earl Lindo said "Wya" on keyboards , Alvin Patterson "Seeco" on percussion. The " I Threes "consisting of Judy Mowatt , Marcia Griffiths and Bob's wife, Rita, vocal accompaniment.
In 1975 Bob Marley burst on the international market with its historic first single, " No Woman, No Cry "from the album Natty Dread . This was followed by the success of 1976 , Rastaman Vibration , which remained for four weeks in the top ten of Billboard Charts in the United States .
In December 1976 , two days before " Smile Jamaica ", a concert organized by Jamaican Prime Minister, Michael Manley , in order to lessen tensions between the two political groups in the war, Bob, his wife Rita and their manager Don Taylor suffered an attack by an unknown armed group consisting of the residence of Bob. Taylor and Rita reported serious injuries, but were cured completely. Bob reported only minor injuries to his chest and arm. It is believed that the attack was politically motivated, having seen the show as a way of supporting the Prime Minister Manley. Nevertheless, the concert was held and Bob Marley performed as scheduled. When asked why he sang that evening, he replied:
"Why are people trying to make this world worse are not allowed a day off ... how could I?"
Bob Marley moved from Jamaica to England in 1976 , where he recorded the album Exodus and Kaya . Exodus stayed on the British charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included singles such as Exodus (song that is based on a single agreement, the lowest), " Jamming "," One Love "," Three Little Birds "and" Waiting in Vain . "
In England , Marley was arrested for possession of small amounts of cannabis , while traveling to London .
[ edit ] Illness and death
Marley in 1977 .
In July 1977 , Marley was found with a wound nell'alluce right, which he thought was caused by an accident during a football match. Later during another of the big football game the nail came off. Only then was made the correct diagnosis. Marley had a form of melanoma malignant skin growing under the nail of the big toe. He was advised to amputate the toe, but he also refused treatment because of his religion ( Rastafarianism ) that the human body must remain "intact".
In 1978 Bob Marley organized a new political concert in Jamaica, called One Love Peace Concert , again in an attempt to halt the hostilities between the two parties at war. At the express request of Marley, the two rival leaders, Michael Manley and Edward Seaga met on stage and shook hands.
In 1979 he was instead produced an album full of political significance, Survival , containing songs such as Zimbabwe , Africa Unite , Wake Up and Live and Survival , who reported Marley's attention to the suffering of African peoples. In early 1980 he was invited to the celebrations of 17 April for the independence of Zimbabwe .
In 1980 the album Uprising marks the end of the production of Bob Marley. This is a disc full of religious significance, which contains singles like Redemption Song and Forever Loving Jah . And it is in Redemption Song " that Marley sang:
" emancipate yourselves from mental slavery, No One But Ourselves Can Free Our Minds ... "" emancipate yourself from mental slavery, none other than ourselves can free our minds ... "
The cancer , meanwhile, extended by the skin of the big right to the brain , the lungs , the liver and the stomach . After completing a triumphant summer tour in Europe playing in Italy (on 27 June 1980 at San Siro Stadium in Milan , in front of 100,000 spectators, and the next day in an equally packed Stadio Comunale in Turin ) returned to the USA and brought Marley completed the first dates of the program. After two concerts atin New York , however, Marley collapsed while jogging in Central Park. On 23 September 1980 Bob gave his last concert at the Stanley Theater in Pittsburgh . After the event, Bob went to Monaco , in Germany for a medical examination by Dr. Josef Issels , specializing in the treatment of terminal diseases. The tumor was too extensive to be treated.
A further decline was felt in the return flight from Germany to Jamaica. The flight was then diverted toward Miami , where Bob was admitted to the Cedar of Lebanon Hospital, where he died on the morning of ' May 11 1981 . Bob's last words were addressed to his son Ziggy Marley : "Money can not buy life" ("money can not buy life").
Bob Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica, combined with elements of the rites of the traditions of ' Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari (the same as Haile Selassie , regarded as the Messiah of the Rastafari religion, he was always devoted to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church ). He was buried in a chapel built near his birthplace in Nine Mile , along with his Gibson Les Paul "Solid Body" , his ball football , a plant of marijuana and its seeds, a ring that he wore every day, given to him by Prince Ethiopian Asfa Wossen and a Bible . A month after the funeral, was recognized by Bob Marley the Jamaican Order of Merit
In 1983 the publication of a posthumous album titled Confrontation , featuring songs and recorded material during the life of the singer, which includes the famous Buffalo Soldiers .
In 1994 is inserted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame .
In 2001 Bob Marley was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement. Again in 2001 is the documentary Rebel Music, which traces his life.
In the summer of 2006 the city of New York appointed a portion of Church Avenue that runs from the ninety-eighth street Ramsen Avenue, East Flatbush in Brooklyn , Bob Marley Boulevard.
Bob Marley is regarded by his people a spiritual guide and every February 6 in Jamaica there is a national holiday in his honor.
A major source of information about Bob Marley as a man on his religion, his music and the movement is bound to him in the book of Timothy White, original title: Catch a Fire , in Italian: Bob Marley .
Bob Marley has had thirteen children , three with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's relationship, and the eight other through relationships with women which was then separated. Here is the complete list in order of birth:
Imani Carole, born on 22 May 1963 to Cheryl Murray ;
Sharon, born on 23 November 1964 from a previous relationship with Rita;
Cedella, born August 23 1967 by Rita;
David said Ziggy was born on 17 October 1968 to Rita;
Stephen , born on April 20 1972 by Rita;
Robert said Robbie , born 16 May 1972 by Pat Williams;
Rohan, born May 19 1972 by Janet Hunt;
Karen, born in 1973 to Janet Bowen;
Stephanie, born August 17 1974 , Cedella Booker was the second daughter of Rita and another man called Ital, but was officially recognized as the daughter of Bob [ citation needed ] ;
Julian , born on 4 June 1975 to Lucy Pounder;
Ky-Mani Marley , born on February 26th 1976 by Anita Belnavis;
Damian , born July 21 1978 by Cindy Breakspeare;
Makeda, born May 30 1981 by Yvette Crichton.