One could regard it as a kind Noah Ark: Due to its richness in species the national park Yasuní in the northeast of Ecuador is valid as the tropical forest with the highest bio diversity of the earth. It covers one million hectare forest area, and on each individual hectare alone three hundred different tree species grow. But the forest accommodates also large variety at fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. According to estimations are on each hectare approximately hundredthousand different kinds of insect at home.
Yasuní was explained from the UNESCO 1989 to the Bioshpärenreservat. The region is singular, because the foothills of the Anden meet here on the Amazon forest. It is the homeland of the Huaorani. But because of the enormous oil deposits, which store under the ground Yasunís, the inhabitants were driven out gradually of the country of their ancestors.
The oil deposits will be exhausted in 30 years
“The Yasuní CCIT initiative takes already today world-wide a role of the pioneer, also for environmental protection organizations”, explains Manfred Niekisch, president of the society for tropical ecology (GTÖ) in Frankfurt/Main, in the discussion with the German wave. “Who knows this area and knows, as it still before twenty years looked, must it sad making see, like is strongly it today in the meantime destroyed.” Particularly if one considers that the reason of the destruction “fossil raw materials are, which will be exhausted anyway in 30 years”, add Niekisch.
Ecuador, which uses itself also for retaining the Galápagos islands, suggested, the oil deposits lain in Yasuní, called CCIT (Ishpingo Tambococha Tiputini), leaving underground if the industrialized countries make a financial contribution as compensation for escaped incomes.
The Ecuadorian parliament chairman Yvonne Baki, which is also negotiation guide of the Yasuní CCIT initiative, traveled with an expert delegation to Berlin, in order to find supporters for the project. Baki held conversations with Member of the Bundestag, representatives of German foundations, banks and enterprises. Germany had at first supported the initiative, had again withdrawn its agreement however after the introduction of the FDP into the Federal Government in October 2009. “Germany is in our eyes a crucial country”, like that Baki. “If we the support from Berlin win - and exactly we would like that - other European countries this example will follow.” She hopes, “that Germany understands that it goes here not around a donation at Ecuador, but around our common responsibility for the climate change.”
Support of Germany
The oil deposits to Yasuní CCIT to promote would not be called to leave approximately 859 million barrel crude oil in the ground. That corresponds twenty per cent of the entire Erdölreserven of Ecuador. Thus the output was prevented of 400 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere. This quantity corresponds to the annual output of greenhouse gases of France and Brazil together. In response Ecuador asks the international community to be responsible for half of the profit which for it the promotion of the oil would bring in - approximately 3.5 billion US Dollar (approx. 2.49 billion euro) in the next thirteen years.
The contributions of the different countries fail however very differently. The span is enough of symbolic amounts as donated in the case of Chile and Peru, which 100,000 euros paid each, up to one million, of Spain, and 35 million, which Italy contributed in form of a debt forgiveness. According to Baki one reached already nearly the mark of forty million euros. “We hope to have achieved our goal to end of the yearly of over one hundred million”, so Baki.
Although Ecuador is historically seen one of the countries, which particularly protected its gigantic bio diversity in the Amazon jungle best, it is concerned “of one of the highest clearing rates in South America”, says Carlo Larrea, the technical advisor, who accompanies the project Yasuní CCIT since 2007. Reason for it is the oil production, which intensified itself since the 1970's. If the Yasuní CCIT initiative creates it, the necessary support to received, will serve it Larrea according to as model, how one can stop deforestation in a timeframe of thirty years on national level.
Germany will revive the initiative
the Ecuadorian president demand alliance 90/the Greens had already assured from the Federal Government that she keeps her promise euros annually paying to the initiative forty million as it chancellor. With the introduction of the liberals into the government coalition in October 2009 the acting Minister for economic development and co-operation, Dirk Niebel (FDP) makes, however a backdown. “For us that was an unexpected and disappointing change, to Germany already its assistance had finally assured”, so Niekisch. On a protest letter at Niebel one answered it that the initiative is revived.
The project is to be financed from funds of the development program of the United Nations (United nation development of programs, UNDP). There are already forty this special fund for environmental protection projects in different regions of the world, which rely on international financing. “None of the projects was examined as intensively as this. It was examined of scientists, of groups of environmental protection and also of us. It is a very solid proposal”, says until advice Aklilu of the UNDP. The funds of a committee one steer, of members of the Ecuadorian government, representatives of the inhabitants of the region, representatives of other countries, the civil society and the UNDP consists. “If it should come to a change of mind and be exploited nevertheless the CCIT fields should, gives it a warranty that its money gets, insures the individual contribution payers back” the UN-diplomat.