An electrolyte is a liquid or gel that contains ions and can be decomposed by electrolysis, e.g., that present in a battery.
Commonly, electrolytes are solutions of acids, bases, or salts. Furthermore, some gases may act as electrolytes under conditions of high temperature or low pressure. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g., polystyrene sulfonate), termed polyelectrolytes, which contain charged functional Toshiba Tecra M10-SP2901R Keyboard
Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components dissociate due to the thermodynamic interactions between solvent and solute molecules, in a process called solvation. For example, when table salt, NaCl, is placed in water, the salt (a solid) dissolves into its component ions, according to the dissociation reaction
NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
It is also possible for substances to react with water producing ions, e.g., carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water to produce a solution which contains hydronium, carbonate, and hydrogen carbonate ions.
Note that molten salts can be electrolytes as well. For instance, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity.
An electrolyte in a solution may be described as concentrated if it has a high concentration of Toshiba Satellite U305-S7477 Keyboard
ions, or dilute if it has a low concentration. If a high proportion of the solute dissociates to form free ions, the electrolyte is strong; if most of the solute does not dissociate, the electrolyte is weak. The properties of electrolytes may be exploited using electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compounds contained within the solution.
1 Physiological importance
3 Solid electrolyte
4 See also
In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl−), hydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and hydrogen carbonate (HCO3−). The electric charge symbols of plus (+) and minus (−) indicate that the substance is ionic in nature and has an imbalanced distribution of electrons, the result of chemical dissociation. SToshiba Satellite U205-s5034 Keyboard
odium is the main electrolyte found in extracellular fluid and is involved in fluid balance and blood pressure control.
All known higher lifeforms require a subtle and complex electrolyte balance between the intracellular and extracellular environment. In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important. Such gradients affect and regulate the hydration of the body as well as blood pH, and are critical for nerve and muscle function. Various mechanisms Toshiba Satellite pro 4280xdvd Keyboard
exist in living species that keep the concentrations of different electrolytes under tight control.
Both muscle tissue and neurons are considered electric tissues of the body. Muscles and neurons are activated by electrolyte activity between the extracellular fluid or interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. Electrolytes may enter or leave the cell membrane through specialized protein structures embedded in the plasma membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction is dependent upon the presence of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+). Toshiba Satellite P105-S6177 Keyboard
Without sufficient levels of these key electrolytes, muscle weakness or severe muscle contractions may occur.
Electrolyte balance is maintained by oral, or in emergencies, intravenous (IV) intake of electrolyte-containing substances, and is regulated by hormones, generally with the kidneys flushing out excess levels. In humans, electrolyte homeostasis is regulated by hormones such as antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Serious electrolyte disturbances, Toshiba Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard
such as dehydration and overhydration, may lead to cardiac and neurological complications and, unless they are rapidly resolved, will result in a medical emergency.
Measurement of electrolytes is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, performed via blood testing with ion selective electrodes or urinalysis by medical technologists. The interpretation of these values is somewhat meaningless without analysis of the clinical history Toshiba Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard
and is often impossible without parallel measurement of renal function. Electrolytes measured most often are sodium and potassium. Chloride levels are rarely measured except for arterial blood gas interpretation since they are inherently linked to sodium levels. One important test conducted on urine is the specific gravity test to determine the occurrence of electrolyte imbalance.
In oral rehydration therapy, electrolyte drinks containing sodium and potassium salts replenish the body's water and electrolyte levels after dehydration caused by exercise, excessive alcohol consumption, diaphoresis, diarrhea, vomiting, intoxication or starvation. Athletes exercising in extreme conditions (for three or more hours continuously e.g. marathon or triathlon) who do not consume electrolytes risk dehydration (or hyponatremia).
A simple electrolyte drink can be home-made by using the correct proportions of water, sugar, Toshiba Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard
salt, salt substitute for potassium, and baking soda.
Electrolytes are commonly found in fruit juices, coconut water, sports drinks, milk, and many fruits and vegetables (whole or in juice form) (e.g. potatoes, avocados).
Main article: electrolysis
When electrodes are placed in an electrolyte and a voltage is applied, the electrolyte will conduct electricity. Lone electrons normally cannot pass through the electrolyte; instead, a chemical reaction occurs at the cathode consuming electrons from the anode. Another reaction occurs at the anode, producing electrons that are eventually transferred to the cathode. As a result, a negative charge cloud develops in the electrolyte around the cathode, and a positive charge develops around the anode. The ions in the electrolyte neutralize these charges, enabling the Toshiba Satellite L775D-S7305 Keyboard
electrons to keep flowing and the reactions to continue.
For example, in a solution of ordinary table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water, the cathode reaction will be
2H2O + 2e− → 2OH− + H2
and hydrogen gas will bubble up; the anode reaction is
2NaCl → 2 Na+ + Cl2 + 2e−
and chlorine gas will be liberated. The positively charged sodium ions Na+ will react towards the cathode neutralizing the negative charge of OH− there, and the negatively charged hydroxide ions OH− will react towards the anode neutralizing the positive charge of Na+ there. Without the ions from the electrolyte, the charges around the electrode would slow down continued electron flow; diffusion of H+ and OH− through water to the other electrode takes longer than movement of the much more prevalent salt ions.
Also: Electrolytes dissociate in water because water molecules are dipoles and the dipoles orient in an energetically favorable manner to solvate the ions.
In other systems, the electrode reactions can involve the metals of the electrodes as well as the ions of the electrolyte.
Electrolytic conductors are used in electronic devices where the chemical reaction at a metal/electrolyte interface yields useful effects.
In batteries, two materials with different electron affinities are used as electrodes; electrons flow from one electrode to the other outside of the battery, while inside the battery the circuit is closed by the electrolyte's ions. Here the electrode reactions convert chemical energy to electrical energy.
In some fuel cells, a solid electrolyte or proton conductor connects the plates electrically while keeping the hydrogen and oxygen fuel gases separated.
In electroplating tanks, the electrolyte simultaneously deposits metal onto the object to be plated, and electrically connects that object in the circuit.
In operation-hours gauges, two thin columns of mercury are separated by a small electrolyte-filled gap, and, as charge is passed through the device, the metal dissolves on one side and plates out on the other, causing the visible gap to slowly move along.
In electrolytic capacitors the chemical effect is used to produce an extremely thin 'dielectric' or insulating coating, while the electrolyte layer behaves as one capacitor plate.
In some hygrometers the humidity of air is sensed by measuring the conductivity of a nearly dry electrolyte.
Hot, softened glass is an electrolytic conductor, and some glass manufacturers keep the glass molten by passing a large current through it.
Solid electrolytes can be mostly divided into three groups:
Gel electrolytes - they closely resemble liquid electrolytes. They are essentially liquids in a flexible Toshiba Satellite L750-ST5NX2 Keyboard
lattice framework. Various additives are often applied to increase the conductivity of such systems.
Dry polymer electrolytes - they differ from liquid and gel electrolytes in the sense, that salt is dissolved directly into the solid medium. Usually it's a relatively high dielectric constant polymer (PEO, PMMA, PAN, polyphosphazenes, siloxanes etc.) and a salt with low lattice energy. In order to increase the mechanical strength and conductivity of such electrolytes, very often composites Toshiba Satellite L750-ST5NX2 Keyboard
are used, namely inert ceramic phase is introduced. There two major classes of such electrolytes: polymer-in-ceramic, and ceramic-in-polymer.
Solid ceramic electrolytes - ions migrate through the ceramic phase by means of vacancies and/or interstitials within the lattice. There are also glassy-ceramic electrolytes.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA[a]) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Toshiba Satellite L655D-S5109 Keyboard
Indian Ocean to the south,[b] the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state and the second-largest subnational entity in the world. The state has approximately 2.3 million inhabitants (around 10% of the national total), the majority of whom live in the south-west corner of the state.
The first European to visit Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616. The British established a military outpost at King George Sound, Toshiba Satellite A305-S6839 Keyboard
near present-day Albany, in 1826, which was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the townsite of the present-day capital, Perth.
Western Australia achieved self-government in 1890, and later federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today Western Australia's economy mainly relies on mining, agriculture, and tourism, with the state supplying 46% of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the third-largest iron ore producer in the world.
2 Natural history
2.3 Flora and fauna
6.2 Local government
9.3 The arts
10 See also
13 External links
Main article: Geography of Western Australia
Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, and Toshiba PK130CL1A00 Keyboard
bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, although it is officially gazetted as the Southern Ocean in Australia.[b]
The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km (1,157 mi). There are 20,781 km (12,913 mi) of coastline, including 7,892 km (4,904 mi) of island coastline. The total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2.
The bulk of Western Australia consists of the extremely old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India, Madagascar and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on EToshiba NB100 Keyboard
arth (3 – 3.2 billion years ago).
Because the only mountain-building since then has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is extremely eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres (4,085 ft) AHD (at Mount Meharry in the Hamersley Range of the Pilbara region). Most parts of the state form a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres (1,200 ft), very low relief, and no surface runoff. This descends relatively sharply to the coastal plains, in Toshiba Mini NB 505 Series Keyboard
some cases forming a sharp escarpment (as with the Darling Range/Darling Scarp near Perth).
Western Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network.
The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and frequently laterised. Even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less Toshiba Mini NB 255 Series Keyboard
available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, being even more devoid of soluble phosphate and also deficient in zinc, copper, molybdenum and sometimes potassium and calcium.
The infertility of most of the soils has required heavy inputs of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate, insecticides and herbicides, which—with the ensuing damage to invertebrate Toshiba K000049460 Keyboard
and bacterial populations, and compaction of soils through heavy machinery and hoofed mammals—has done great damage to the fragile soils.
Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora and fauna. As a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots". Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland Toshiba 9Z.N4WSV.001 Keyboard
salinity and the loss of fresh water.
The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and was originally heavily forested, including large stands of the karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region of Western Australia is in the top nine terrestrial habitats for terrestrial biodiversity, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Thinkpad T420i
Leeuwin Current the area numbers in the top six regions for marine biodiversity, containing the most southerly coral reefs in the world.
Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but in the months of November to March evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry. Plants must be adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. A major reduction in winter rainfall has been observed ThinkPad Edge E520s
since the mid-1970s, with a greater number of extreme rainfall events in the summer months.
The central four-fifths of the state is semiarid or desert and is lightly inhabited with the only significant activity being mining. Annual rainfall averages 200–250 millimetres (8–10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer months.
An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 millimetres (20–60 in), ThinkPad Edge E520
but there is a very long almost rainless season from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state's runoff occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the Ord River.
The Black Swan is the state bird of Western Australia
The Red and Green Kangaroo Paw is the floral emblem of Western Australia
Occurrence of snow in the state is rare, and typically only in the Stirling Range near Albany, as it is the only mountain range far enough south and with sufficient elevation. More rarely, snow can Sony VGN-FE865E/H Keyboard
fall on the nearby Porongurup Range. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of southwestern Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the Perth Hills, as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day.
The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Sony VAIO VPCF12AFM/H Keyboard
Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.
Flora and fauna
Western Australia is home to around 540 species of birds (depending on the taxonomy used). Of these around 15 are endemic to the state. The best areas for birds are the southwestern corner of the state and the area around Broome and the Kimberley.
The Flora of Western Australia comprises 9437 published native vascular plant species of 1543 genera within 226 families, there are also 1171 naturalised alien or invasive plant species more commonly known as weeds. In the southwest region are some of the largest numbers of plant species for its area in the world.
Specific ecoregions of Western Australia include: the sandstone gorges of The Kimberley on the northern coast and below that areas of dry grassland (Ord Victoria Plain) or semi-desert (Western Sony VAIO VGN-SZ660N/C Keyboard
Australian Mulga shrublands), with Tanami Desert inland from there. Following the coast south there is the Southwest Australia savanna and the Swan Coastal Plain around Perth, and then farther south the Warren on the southwest corner of the coast around the wine-growing area of Margaret River.
Going east along the Southern Ocean coast is the Goldfields-Esperance region including the Esperance grasslands and the Coolgardie grasslands inland around town of Coolgardie.
Main article: History of Western Australia
John Forrest was the first Premier of Western Australia.
The first inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north approximately 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Over thousands of years they eventually spread across the whole landmass. These Indigenous Australians were well established throughout Western Australia by the time European explorers began to arrive in the early seventeenth century.
The first European to visit Western Australia was a Dutch explorer, Dirk Hartog who on 25 October 1616 landed at what is now known as Cape Inscription, Dirk Hartog Island. For the rest of the 17th century, other Dutch (and other nationalities) travellers encountered the coast, usually unintentionally, as many shipwrecks along the coast of ships that deviated (because of poor navigation and storms) from the Brouwer Route illustrate.. It was a further 200 years before it was proven that the Great Southern continent actually existed. By the late 18th Sony VAIO VGN-NW15G/S Keyboard
century, British and French sailors had begun to explore the Western Australian coast.
The origins of the present state began with the establishment of a British settlement at King George Sound in 1826 (later named Albany from 1832). The settlement was founded in response to British concerns about the possibility of a French colony being established on the coast of Western Australia.
In 1829, the Swan River Colony was established on the Swan River by Captain James Stirling. By Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z Keyboard
1832, the British settler population of the colony had reached around 1,500, and the official name of the colony was changed to Western Australia. The two separate townsites of the colony developed slowly into the port city of Fremantle and the state's capital, Perth.
Population growth was very slow until significant discoveries of gold were made in the 1890s around Kalgoorlie.
In 1887, a new constitution was drafted, providing for the right of self-governance and in 1890, Sony VAIO VGN-NW110D Keyboard
the act granting self-government to the colony was passed by the British Parliament. John Forrest became the first Premier of Western Australia.
In 1896, the Western Australian Parliament authorised the raising of a loan to construct a pipeline to transport five million gallons of water per day to the Goldfields of Western Australia. The pipeline, known as the Goldfields Water Supply Scheme, was completed in 1903. C.Y. O'Connor, Western Australia's first engineer-in-chief, designed and oversaw the construction of Sony VAIO VGN-NW110D Keyboard
the pipeline. It carries water 530 km (330 mi) from Perth to Kalgoorlie, and is attributed by historians as an important factor driving the state's population and economic growth.
Following a campaign led by Forrest, residents of the colony of Western Australia (still informally called the Swan River Colony) voted in favour of federation, resulting in Western Australia officially becoming a state on 1 January 1901.
See also: Demographics of Australia
Western Australia's capital and largest city, Perth, from Kings Park. Its metropolitan area is home to 75% of the state's population.
Distribution of the Western Australian population.
Europeans began to settle permanently in 1826 when Albany was claimed by Britain to forestall French claims to the western third of the continent. Perth was founded as the Swan River Colony Sony VAIO VGN-N38E/W Keyboard
in 1829 by British and Irish settlers, though the outpost languished, eventually requesting convict labour to augment its population. In the 1890s, interstate migration resulting from a mining boom in the Goldfields region resulted in a sharp population increase.
Western Australia did not receive significant flows of migrants from Britain, Ireland or elsewhere in the British Empire until the early 20th century when local projects—such as the Group Settlement Scheme of the 1920s which encouraged farmers to settle the southwest—increased Sony VAIO VGN-N250E/B Keyboard
awareness of Australia's western third as a destination for colonists.
Led by migrants from the Sony VAIO VGN-N250E/B Keyboard, Western Australia's population developed at a faster rate during the twentieth century than it had previously. Along with the eastern states, Western Australia received large numbers of Italians, Croatians and Greeks after World War II. Despite this, Britain has contributed the greatest number of migrants to this day, and Western Australia—particularly Perth—has the highest proportion of British-born of any state: 10.6% in
2006, compared to a national average of 5.3%. This group is heavily concentrated in certain parts where they account for a quarter of the population.
In terms of ethnicity, the 2001 census data reveals that 77.5% of Western Australia's population is of European descent: the largest single group was those reporting English ethnicity, accounting for 733,783 responses (32.7%), followed by Australian with 624,259 (27.8%), Irish with 171,667 (7.6%), Italian with 96,721 (4.3%), Scottish with 62,781 (2.8%), German with 51,672 (2.3%) and Sony VAIO VGN-N21Z Keyboard
Chinese with 48,894 responses (2.2%). There were 58,496 Indigenous Australians in Western Australia in 2001, forming 3.1% of the population.
In terms of birthplace, according to the 2006 census 27.1% of the population were born overseas—higher than the Australian average of 22.2%. 8.9% of Western Australians were born in England, 2.4% in New Zealand, 1.2% in Scotland, 1.1% in South Africa, and 1.1% in Italy.
Perth's metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.55 million in 2007 (75% of the state). Sony VAIO VGN-N130G/W Keyboard
Other significant population centres include Mandurah (78,612), Bunbury (32,499), Geraldton (31,553), Kalgoorlie (28,242), Albany (25,196), Broome (14,436), and Port Hedland (14,000).
See also: Economy of Western Australia and Australian economy
Aerial view of Fremantle Harbour, a major port in WA.
Western Australia's resource commodity mix, 2007.
Major commodity mix, 2008–2009.
Western Australia's economy is largely driven by extraction and processing of a diverse range of mineral and petroleum commodities. The structure of the economy is closely linked to the abundance of natural resources found in the State, providing a comparative advantage in resource extraction and processing. As a consequence:
Western Australia contributes an estimated 58% of Australia's Mineral and Energy Exports, potentially earning up to 4.64% of Australia's total GDP.
Gross state product per person ($70,009) is higher than any other state and well above the national average ($54,606).
Diversification (i.e. a greater range of commodities) over the past 15 years has provided a more balanced production base and less reliance on just a few major export markets, insulating the Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Keyboard
economy from fluctuations in world prices to some extent.
There has been strong growth in the services (finance, insurance and property) and construction sector, which have increased their share of economic output.[broken citation]
Recent growth in global demand for minerals and petroleum, especially in China (iron-ore) and Japan (for LNG), has ensured economic growth above the national average.
Western Australia's overseas exports accounted for 46% of the nation's total. The state's Sony VAIO VGN-FS660 Keyboard
major export commodities include iron-ore, alumina, nickel, gold, ammonia, wheat, wool, live sheep and cattle, and crude oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Western Australia is a major extractor of bauxite, which is also processed into alumina at four refineries providing more than 20% of total world production. It is the world's third-largest iron-ore producer (15% of the world's total) and extracts 75% of Australia's 240 tonnes of gold. Diamonds are extracted at Argyle diamond mine in far north of the Kimberley region. Coal mined Sony VAIO VGN-FS395VP Keyboard
at Collie is the main fuel for baseload electricity generation in the state's south-west.
Agricultural production in WA is a major contributor to the state and national economy. Although tending to be highly seasonal, 2006–07 wheat production in WA was nearly 10 million tonnes, accounting for almost half the nation's total. and providing $1.7 billion in export income.
Other significant farm output includes barley, peas, wool, lamb and beef. There is a high level of overseas demand live animals from WA, driven mainly by South East Asia's feedlots and Sony VAIO VGN-CS21S/V Keyboard
Middle Eastern countries, where cultural and religious traditions and a lack of storage and refrigeration facilities favour live animals over imports of processed meat. Approximately 50% of Australia's live cattle exports come from Western Australia.
Resource sector growth in recent years has resulted in significant labour and skills shortages, leading to recent efforts by the state government to encourage interstate and overseas migration. According to the 2006 census, the median individual income was A$500 per Sony VAIO VGN-CR320D Keyboard
week in Western Australia (compared to A$466 in Australia as a whole). The median family income was A$1246 per week (compared to A$1171 for Australia). Recent growth has also contributed to significant rises in average property values in 2006, although values plateaued in 2007. Perth property prices are still the second highest in Australia behind Sydney, and high rental prices continue to be a problem.
Located south of Perth, the heavy industrial area of Kwinana has the nation's largest oil refinery Sony VAIO VGN-C2S Series Keyboard
which produces petrol and diesel for local consumption, along with iron, alumina, and nickel processing plants, port facilities for grain exports, and support industries for mining and petroleum such as heavy and light engineering, and metal fabrication. Shipbuilding (e.g. Austal Ships) and associated support industries are found at nearby Henderson, just south of Fremantle. Significant secondary industries include cement and building product manufacturing, flour milling, food processing, animal feed production, automotive body building, and printing.
In recent years, tourism has grown in importance, with significant numbers of visitors to the state coming from the UK and Ireland (28%), other European countries (14%) Singapore (16%), Japan (10%) and Malaysia (8%). Revenue from tourism is a strong economic driver in many of the smaller population centres outside of Perth, especially in coastal locations.
Western Australia has a significant fishing industry. Products for local consumption and export include Western Rock Lobsters, prawns, crabs, shark and tuna, as well as pearl fishing in the Sony Vaio VGN-AW310J/H Keyboard
Kimberley region of the state. Processing is conducted along the west coast. Whaling was a key marine industry but ceased at Albany in 1978.
Main article: Government of Western Australia
Government House, Western Australia
Western Australia was granted self-government in 1889 with a bicameral Parliament located in Perth, consisting of the Legislative Assembly (or lower house), which has 59 members; and the Legislative Council (or upper house), which has 36 members. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for citizens over 18 years of age.
With the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, Western Australia became a state within Australia's federal structure; this involved ceding certain powers to the Commonwealth (or Federal) government in accordance with the Constitution; all powers not specifically granted to the Commonwealth remained solely with the State, however over time the Commonwealth has effectively expanded its powers through increasing control of taxation and financial distribution.
Whilst the sovereign of Western Australia is the Queen of Australia (Elizabeth II), and executive Sony Vaio PCG-K34FP Keyboard
power nominally vested in her State representative the Governor (currently Malcolm McCusker), executive power rests with the premier and ministers drawn from the party or coalition of parties holding a majority of seats in the Legislative Assembly. The current Premier is Colin Barnett.
Main article: Secessionism in Western Australia
Secessionism has been a recurring feature of Western Australia's political landscape since shortly Sony Vaio PCG-K215Z Keyboard
after European settlement in 1826. Western Australia was the most reluctant participant in the Commonwealth of Australia. Western Australia did not participate in the earliest federation conference. Longer-term residents of Western Australia were generally opposed to federation; however, the discovery of gold brought many immigrants from other parts of Australia. It was these residents, primarily in Kalgoorlie but also in Albany who voted to join the Commonwealth, and the proposal of these areas being admitted separately under the name Auralia was Sony V072078BS1 Keyboard
In a referendum in April 1933, 68% of voters voted for the state to leave the Commonwealth of Australia with the aim of returning to the British Empire as an autonomous territory. The State Government sent a delegation to Westminster, but the British Government refused to intervene and therefore no action was taken to implement this decision.
Western Australia is divided into 141 Local Government Areas, including Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Their mandate and operations are governed by the Local Government Act 1995.
Education in Western Australia consists of one year of pre-school at age 5, followed by seven SamsungR470 Keyboard
years of primary school education. At age 13, students begin five years of secondary education. The final two years of secondary education are now compulsory. All students who completed Year 10 in 2005 were required to undertake further studies in Year 11. Students were required to complete the year in which they turn 16 (usually Year 11).
Since 2008, all students are required to complete 12 years of study before leaving school. Students have the option to study at a TAFE college in their eleventh year or continue through SamsungR19 Keyboard
high school with a vocational course or a specific University entrance course.
The universities in Western Australia are Curtin University, Murdoch University, Edith Cowan University, University of Notre Dame and the University of Western Australia.
For more information visit the page Western Australian Papers
Western Australia has two daily newspapers: the independent tabloid The West Australian, Countryman and The Kalgoorlie Miner. Also published is one Sunday tabloid newspaper, News Corporation's The Sunday Times. There are also 17 weekly Community Newspapers with distribution from Yanchep in the North to Mandurah in the South. The interstate broadsheet publication The Australian is also available, although with sales per capita lagging far behind SamsungNP-N145-JP01 Keyboard
those in other states. With the advent of the Internet, local news websites like WAtoday, which provide free access to their content, are becoming a popular alternative source of news. Other online publications from around the world like the New South Wales based The Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian are also available.
ABC studios in East Perth
Metropolitan Perth has six broadcast television stations;
ABC WA. Produces nightly local news at 7 pm and local current affairs from 7:30 pm to 8 pm on Fridays. (digital and analogue) (callsign: ABW – Channel 2 Analogue, Channel 12 Digital)
SBS WA (digital and analogue) (callsign: SBS – Channel 28 Analogue, Channel 29 Digital)
Seven Network Perth. Produces daily local news at 4:30 to 5:00, and news and current affairs from 6 pm to 7 pm. (digital and analogue) (callsign: TVW – Channel 7 Analogue, Channel 6 Digital)
Nine Network Perth. Produces daily local news at 4:30 to 5:00 and from 6 pm to 6:30 pm. (digital and analogue) (callsign: STW – Channel 9 Analogue, Channel 8 Digital)
Network Ten Perth. Produces weeknightly local news from 5 pm – 6.00 pm. (digital and analogue) (callsign: NEW – Channel 10 Analogue, Channel 11 Digital)
West TV. A free-to-air digital only community television channel that began broadcasting in April 2010. (digital channel 44)
Access 31. Was a community service channel. (analogue-only) (callsign: ATW – Channel 31 Analogue) – ceased transmission in August 2008, with assets liquidated.
In addition, broadcasters operate digital multichannels:
ABC2 (carried by ABW)
ABC3 (carried by ABW)
ABC News 24 (carried by ABW)
SBS Two (carried by SBS)
SBS HD (carried by SBS)
7mate (carried by TVW)
7Two (carried by TVW)
GEM (carried by STW)
GO! (carried by STW)
Eleven (carried by NEW)
One HD (carried by NEW)
Regional WA has a similar availability of stations, with the exception of West TV in all areas but Bunbury and Albany. The metropolitan commercial stations are affiliated with:
Golden West Network (GWN7). Produces weeknightly local news from 5.30 pm to 6 pm, also airs Seven Perth news until 7 pm) (analogue only) (callsign: SSW South West, VEW Goldfields/Esperance, GTW Central West, WAW Statewide)
WIN Television WA. Also airs Nine News Western Australia at 4:30, and Nine News Perth from 6 pm – 6:30 pm. (analogue only) (callsign: WOW)
Ten West. A joint venture between GWN and WIN to provide Ten to regional WA. It is a direct IBM Thinkpad T61 Keyboard
feed of NEW-10 with local ads inserted. Most population centres now receive Ten West.
Pay TV services are provided by Foxtel, which acquired many of the assets and all the remaining subscribers of the insolvent Galaxy Television satellite service in 1998. Some metropolitan suburbs are serviced by Pay TV via cable; however, most of the metropolitan and rural areas can only access Pay TV via satellite.
Perth has many radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include ABC NewsRadio (6PB 585 am), 720 ABC Perth (6WF 720 am), ABC Radio National (6RN 810 am), ABC Classic FM (6ABC 97.7FM) and Triple J (6JJJ 99.3FM). The six commercial stations are: FM 92.9 (6PPM), Nova 93.7 (6PER), Mix 94.5 (6MIX), 96fm (6NOW), and AM 882 (6PR), and AM 1080 (6IX).
The leading community radio stations are 6RTR FM 92.1 and Sonshine FM 98.5 (6SON).
Main article: West Australian wine
Winemaking regions are concentrated in the cooler climate of the south-western portion of the state. Western Australia produces less than 5% of the country's wine output, but in quality terms isIBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Keyboard
considered to be very much near the top. Major wine producing regions include: Margaret River, The Great Southern, Swan Valley as well as smaller districts including Blackwood Valley, Manjimup, Pemberton, Peel, Chittering Valley, Perth Hills, and Geographe.
Main article: Sport in Western Australia
A number of national or international sporting teams and events are based in the state, including:
Australian rules football: The West Coast Eagles and the Fremantle Dockers compete in the Australian Football League (AFL). The West Australian Football League (WAFL) is the main local football competition, but other local and amateur football leagues exist across the state.
Baseball: The Perth Heat compete in the Australian Baseball League.
Basketball: The Perth Wildcats (men) and West Coast Waves (women) compete in the National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball League, respectively.
Cricket: Western Australia represent the state in first-class and List A domestic cricket, with the Perth Scorchers competing in the Twenty20 Big Bash League.
Field hockey: The Thundersticks (men) and Diamonds (women) compete in the Australian Hockey League.
Netball: The West Coast Fever compete in the ANZ Championship.
Rugby league: The WA Reds compete in the S. G. Ball Cup.
Rugby union: The Western Force compete in the Super Rugby competition
Soccer: Perth Glory field men's and women's teams in the A-League and W-League, respectively.
International events hosted by Western Australia include the Hopman Cup, the Tom Hoad Cup, the Perth Cup, Red Bull Air Race and the Gravity Games, as well as the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games.
Western Australia is home to one of the country's leading performance training institutions, the acclaimed Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA), as well as a burgeoning theatrical and musical scene. Notable musicians and bands to have been born in or lived in Western Australia include Adam Brand, Karnivool, Birds of Tokyo, HP Pavilion G6-1212TX Keyboard, , Johnny Young, Gyroscope, the , Tame Impala, Kevin Mitchell, The Kill Devil Hills, Pendulum, The Pigram Brothers, and The Triffids. The West Australian Music Industry
Awards (WAMis) have been awarded every year to the leading musicians and performers in WA since 2001.
Notable actors and television personalities from Western Australia include, , Sam Worthington, Ernie Dingo, Jessica Marais, Megan Gale, , Isla Fisher, and Melissa George. Films and television series filmed or partly filmed in Western Australia include Cloudstreet, Australia, Bran Nu Dae, ABBA: the Movie and Last Train to Freo.
The West Australian Symphony Orchestra (WASO) is based at the Perth Concert Hall. Other concert and performance venues in Western Australia include His Majesty's Theatre and the defunct Perth Entertainment Centre. Perth Arena, set to open in 2012, will host concerts and
indoor sporting events.