London and 2012 Summer_Olympics

London and 2012 Summer_Olympics

London : United Kingdom | Jul 10, 2012 at 11:07 PM PDT
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Sony VAIO P-Series sponsors William Tempest show at London Fashion Week

London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.[note 1] Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia,

Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Batteryits history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[3] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its square-mile mediaeval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, the name London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core.[4]

Sony VAIO PCG-71312M BatteryThe bulk of this conurbation forms the London region[5] and the Greater London administrative area,[6][note 2] governed by the elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly.[7]

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London is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence.[8] It is the world's leading financial centre alongside New York City[9][1

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0][11] and has the fifth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, and the largest in Europe (as of 2008).[12] London has been described as a world cultural capital.[13][14][15][16] It is the world's most-visited city[17]

Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.[18] London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education in Europe.[19] In 2012 London will become the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.[20]

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London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries.[21] In July 2010 Greater London had an official population of 7,825,200, making it the most populous municipality in the European Union,[2][22] and accounting for 12.5% of the UK population.[2

Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery3] The Greater London Urban Area is the second-largest in the EU with a population of 8,278,251,[24] while London's metropolitan area is the largest in the EU with an estimated total population of between 12 million[25] and 14 million.[26] London had the largest population of any city in the world from around 1831 to 1925.[27] Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory marks the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT).[2

Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery8] Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and Wembley Stadium. London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library, Wimbledon, and 40 West End theatres.[29]

Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world[30] and the second-most extensive (after the Shanghai Metro).[31]

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The name London may derive from the River Thames

The etymology of London is uncertain.[32] It is an ancient name and can be found in sources from the 2nd century. It is recorded c. 121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin.[32] The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae.[3

Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery2] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[33] Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

From 1898 it was commonly accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos; this explanation has since been rejected.[32] Richard Coates put forward an explanation in 1998 that it is derived from the pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida,

Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Batterymeaning 'river too wide to ford', and suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon;[ Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery34] this requires quite a serious amendment however. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

which should demand a form *(h)lōndinion (as opposed to *londīnion), from earlier *loundiniom; however this has proved difficult to interpret.[citation needed] The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

Until 1889 the name "London" officially only applied to the City of London but since then it has also referred to the County of London and now Greater London.[4] Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

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Prehistory and antiquity

In 1300 the City was still confined within the Roman walls.

Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans in 43 AD.[35] This lasted for just seventeen years and around 61, the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

burning it to the ground.[36] The next, heavily planned incarnation of the city prospered and superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height during the 2nd century,

Sony VAIO PCG-61111M BatteryRoman London had a population of around 60,000. By the 7th century, the Anglo-Saxons had created a new settlement called Lundenwic over a mile (2 km) upstream from the old Roman city, around what is now Covent Garden.[37] Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

It is likely that there was a harbour at the mouth of the River Fleet for fishing and trading, and this trading grew, until the city was overcome by the Vikings and forced to move east, back to the location of the Roman Londinium, in order to use its walls for protection.[38] Viking attacks continued to increase,

Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Batteryuntil 886 when Alfred the Great recaptured London and made peace with the Danish leader, Guthrum.[39] The original Saxon city of Lundenwic became Ealdwic ("old city"), a name surviving to the present day as Aldwych, which is in the modern City of Westminster.[40]

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Two recent discoveries indicate that London could be much older than previously thought. In 1999 the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the foreshore north of Vauxhall Bridge.[41] This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a (lost) island in the river. Dendrology dated the timbers to 1500BC. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to 4500BC, were found on the Thames foreshore, South of Vauxhall Bridge.[42] The function of the mesolithic structure is not known, but it covers at least 50m x 10m,

Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery and numerous 30 cm posts are visible at low tides. Both structures are on South Bank, at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the River Thames, and 4 km upstream from the Roman City of London. The effort required to construct these structures implies trade, stability, and a community size of several hundred people at least. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

Middle Ages

The Lancastrian siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist sally.

With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London was effectively abandoned. However, from the 6th century an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed slightly to the west of the old Roman city,

Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery around what is now Covent Garden and the Strand, rising to a likely population of 10–12,000.[37] In the 9th century London was repeatedly attacked by Vikings, leading to a relocation of the city back to the location of Roman Londinium, in order to use its walls for protection.[38

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] Following the unification of England in the 10th century London, already the country's largest city and most important trading centre, became increasingly important as a political centre, although it still faced competition from Winchester, the traditional centre of the kingdom of Wessex.

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In the 11th century King Edward the Confessor re-founded and rebuilt Westminster Abbey and Westminster, a short distance upstream from London became a favoured royal residence. From this point onward Westminster steadily supplanted the City of London itself as a venue for the business of national government.[43]

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Westminster Abbey is a World Heritage Site and one of London's oldest and most important buildings as seen in this painting (Canaletto, 1749 A.D.) Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

Following his victory in the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned King of England in the newly finished Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.[44] William constructed the Tower of London, the first of the many Norman castles in England to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city to intimidate the native inhabitants.[45] Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.[46][47] Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

During the 12th century the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place. In most cases this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre and flourished under its own unique administration, Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

the Corporation of London. In 1100 its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.[48]

Disaster struck during the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.[49] London was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.[50]

Early modern

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The Great Fire of London destroyed many parts of the city in 1666.

London in 1806

During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, with much of London passing from church to private ownership.[51] The traffic in woollen cloths shipped undyed and undressed from London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, for use by well-to-do wearers chiefly in the interior of the continent.

Sony VAIO PCG-7195M Battery But the tentacles of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean Sea normally lay through Antwerp and over the Alps;

Sony VAIO PCG-7194M Battery any ship passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan. Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565 there at once ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.[52] The Royal Exchange was founded.[53]

Sony VAIO PCG-7192M BatteryMercantilism grew and monopoly trading companies such as the East India Company were established, with trade expanding to the New World. London became the principal North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.[51Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre. By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact.

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There was an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, through the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November 1605.[54] London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,[55] culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.[56]

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The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.[57] Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke[58][59][60] as Surveyor of London.[6Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery1] In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral was completed. During the Georgian era new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; and new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream.

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In 1762 George III acquired Buckingham House and it was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force.[62]

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In total, more than 200 offences were punishable by death,[63] and women and children were hanged for petty theft.[64] Over 74 per cent of children born in London died before they were five.[65] The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press.

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According to Samuel Johnson:

You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

—Samuel Johnson, 1777[66]

Late modern and contemporary

A London street hit during the Blitz of World War II

London was the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925.[67] London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics,[6Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

8] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.[69] Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion.

It was replaced in 1889 by the London County Council, London's first elected city-wide administration. The Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe during World War II killed over 30,000 Londoners and destroyed large tracts of housing and other buildings across London. Immediately after the war,

Sony VAIO PCG-8113M Batterythe 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium, at a time when the city had barely recovered from the war. Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery

In 1951 the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea-souper" fogs for which London had been notorious. From the 1940s onwards,

Sony VAIO PCG-8112M BatteryLondon became home to a large number of immigrants, largely from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in Europe. Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

Primarily starting in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London subculture associated with the King's Road, Chelsea and Carnaby Street.

Sony VAIO PCG-7134M Battery The role of trendsetter was revived during the punk era. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London Council was created. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, London was subjected to bombing attacks by the Provisional IRA. Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot.

Sony VAIO PCG-7131M Battery Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after World War II, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s. The principal ports for London moved downstream to Felixstowe and Tilbury, Sony VAIO PCG-7113M Battery

with the London Docklands area becoming a focus for regeneration as the Canary Wharf development. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the 1980s. Sony VAIO PCG-7121M Battery

The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the North Sea. The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, which left London as the only large metropolis in the world without a central administration. In 2000, Sony VAIO PCG-7122M Battery

London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority. To celebrate the start of the 21st century, the Millennium Dome, London Eye and Millennium Bridge were constructed. On 7 July 2005, three London Underground trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks.[70] Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall, Southwark

The administration of London is formed of two tiers—a city-wide, strategic tier and a local tier. City-wide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.[ Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery71] The GLA consists of two elected components; the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, who scrutinise the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Southwark; the current mayor is Boris Johnson. The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the London Plan,

Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Batterywhich was most recently revised in 2011.[72] The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation.[73] They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection.

Sony VAIO PCG-7153M BatteryCertain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over 22 billion ₤ (14.7 billion ₤ for the boroughs and 7.4 billion ₤ for the GLA)[74]

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Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police Force, overseen by the Metropolitan Police Authority. The City of London has its own police force – the City of London Police.[

Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery5] The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail and London Underground services in the capital.[767Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery


The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater London. It is run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third-largest fire service in the world.[77] National Health Service ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust,

Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery he largest free at the point of use emergency ambulance service in the world.[78] The London Air Ambulance charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames.[79][80]

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National government

London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom, which is located around the Palace of Westminster. Many government departments are located close to Parliament, particularly along Whitehall,

Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Batteryincluding the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street.[81] The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this sobriquet was first applied to England itself by John Bright)[82] because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments.

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Main article: Geography of London


Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London. The small, ancient City of London at its core once contained the whole settlement, but as the urban area grew the City Corporation resisted attempts to amalgamate it with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number ways for different purposes; Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

and the situation was once open to legal debate.[83] Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the London post town, within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.[84][85]

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Satellite view of London

Map of central London

The London telephone area code (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are omitted and some places just outside are included. The area within the orbital M25 motorway is normally what is referred to as 'London'.[86Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

] and the Greater London boundary has been aligned to it in places.[87]

Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt,[88] although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places,

Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery esulting in a separately defined Greater London Urban Area. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.[89] Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London.[90

Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery] The city is split by the River Thames into North and South, with an informal central London area in its interior. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are approximately 51°30′26″N 00°07′39″W.[91]

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Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are the ceremonial counties.[92] The current area of Greater London has incorporated areas that were once part of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent,

Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.[93] London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.[note 3]

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Its position was formed through constitutional convention, making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution. The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court,

Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Batteryand thus the political capital of the nation.[97] More recently, Greater London has been defined as a region of England and in this context known as London.[5]
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Primrose Hill

Greater London covers an area of 1,583 square kilometres (611 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760 /sq mi).

Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery A larger area, referred to as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration covers an area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi) has a population of 12,653,500 and a population density of 1,510 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,900 /sq mi).[98]

Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M BatteryModern London stands on the Thames, its primary geographical feature, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. The Thames was once a much broader, Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.[99]

Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.[100]

Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound.[101]

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In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.[102]


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London has a temperate oceanic climate, similar to much of southern Britain. Despite its reputation as being a rainy city, London receives less precipitation in a year than Rome at 834 mm (32.8 in), or Bordeaux at 923 mm (36.3 in).[ Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

103] Winters are generally chilly to cold with frost usually occurring in the suburbs on average twice a week from November to March. Snow usually occurs about 4 or 5 times a year mostly from December to February.

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Snowfall during March and April is rare but does occur every 2–3 years. Winter temperatures seldom fall below −4 °C (24.8 °F) or rise above 14 °C (57.2 °F). During the winter of 2010, London experienced its lowest temperature on record (−14 °C (6.8 °F)) in Northolt and the heaviest snow seen for almost two decades, a huge strain on London's transport infrastructure. Summers are generally warm and sometimes hot,

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the heat being boosted by the urban heat island effect making the centre of London at times 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. London's summer average is 24 °C (75.2 °F). On average there are 7 days a year above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 2 days a year above 32 °C (89.6 °F). Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Temperatures of 26 °C (80 °F) usually occur on a weekly basis from mid- June to late August. During the 2003 European heat wave there were 14 consecutive days above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 2 consecutive days where temperatures soared up to 38 °C (100.4 °F), Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery leading to hundreds of heat related deaths. Rain generally occurs on around 2 out of 10 summer days. Spring and Autumn are mixed seasons and can be pleasant. On 1 October 2011, the air temperature attained 30 °C (86.0 °F) and in April 2011 it reached 28 °C (82.4 °F). Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

However in recent years both of these months have also had snowfall. Temperature extremes range from −10 °C (14.0 °F) to 37.9 °C (100.2 °F).

London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Wembley and Whitechapel.

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These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without current official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.[1Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

09][110] The City of London is the main financial district[111] and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub, in the Docklands to the east. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.[112] West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.[113] The average price for properties in Kensington and Chelsea is £894,000 with similar average outlay in most of central London.[114] Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.[11Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

5] The surrounding East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which is being developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics.[115] Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery


Main articles: Architecture of London and List of tallest buildings and structures in London

30 St Mary Axe, also known as the Gherkin, towers over St Andrew Undershaft

London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly due to their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone.

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Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in Central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains,

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the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the Tudor period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey circa 1515.[116]

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Wren's late 17th century churches and the financial institutions of the 18th and 19th centuries such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate form part of the varied architectural heritage. Sony VAIO PCG-61412M Battery

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The disused, but soon to be rejuvenated, 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the southwest is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St. Pancras and Paddington.[1Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery17] The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London and lower densities in the suburbs.

The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby.

Sony VAIO PCG-81212V BatteryMarble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of the city centre.

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Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.[118]

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Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the British monarch

In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square are usually found in the two financial districts, Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings. Nevertheless there are a number of very tall skyscrapers to be found in central London (see Tall buildings in London),

Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery including the 72-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest building in Europe.

Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape,[119] and the British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, located by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now used as an entertainment venue called The O2 Arena.

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Parks and gardens

Main articles: Parks and open spaces in London and Royal Parks of London

Aerial view of Hyde Park

The largest parks in the central area of London are the Royal Parks of Hyde Park, its neighbour Kensington Gardens at the western edge of central London and Regent's Park on the northern edge.[120] Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is located near the tourist attraction of Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[121][122] Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

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Closer to central London are the smaller Royal Parks of Green Park and St. James's Park.[123] Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the south-east[124]

Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Batteryand Bushy Park and Richmond Park to the south-west,[125][126] as well as Victoria Park, London to the east. Primrose Hill to the north of Regent's Park is a popular spot to view the city skyline. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare (790-acre) Hampstead Heath of North London.[127] This incorporates Kenwood House, the former stately home and a popular location in the summer months where classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.[128]

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With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War. There were an estimated 7,556,900 official residents in Greater London as of mid-2007.[131]

However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 8,278,251 people in 2001,[2

Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery4] while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition used.[25][26] According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union and the second most populous in Europe (or third if Istanbul is included).

Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery During the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in London.[132]

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi). The population density is 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760 /sq mi),[133] more than ten times that of any other British region.[134] In terms of population,

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London is the 25th largest city and the 18th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is also ranked 4th in the world in number of billionaires (United States Dollars) residing in the city.[135] London ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.[136]

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Ethnic groups

Main article: Ethnic groups in London

According to the Office for National Statistics, based on 2009 estimates, 69.7 per cent of the 7,753,600 inhabitants of London were White, with 59.5 per cent White British, 2.2 per cent White Irish and 8.0 per cent classified as Other White.

Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M BatterySome 13.2 per cent are of South Asian descent, with Indians making up 6.2 per cent of London's population, followed by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis at 2.8 per cent and 2.2 per cent respectively. 2.0 per cent are categorised as "Other Asian". 10.1 per cent of London's population are Black,

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with around 5.3 per cent being Black African, 4.0 per cent as Black Caribbean and 0.8 per cent as "Other Black". 3.5 per cent of Londoners are of mixed race; 1.8 per cent are Chinese; and 1.7 per cent belong to another ethnic group.[137]

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Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools.[138] However, White children represent 62 per cent of London's 1,498,700 population aged 0 to 15 as of 2009 estimates from the Office for National Statistics, with 55.7 per cent of the population aged 0 to 15 being White British, 0.7 per cent being White Irish and 5.6 per cent being from other EU White backgrounds.[139

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] In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities which have a population of more than 10,000 in London.[14

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0] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2010, London's foreign-born population is 2,650,000 (33 per cent), up from 1,630,000 in 1997.

The 2001 census showed that 27.1 per cent of Greater London's population were born outside the UK.[141] The table to the right shows the 20 most common foreign countries of birth of London residents in 2001,

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the date of the last published UK Census.[129] A portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[142] Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery Estimates produced by the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were those born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria.[130] Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

The majority of Londoners – 58.2 per cent – identify themselves as Christians.[143] This is followed by those of no religion (15.8 per cent), Muslims (8.5 per cent), Hindus (4.1 per cent), Jews (2.1 per cent), Sikhs (1.5 per cent), Buddhists (0.8 per cent) and other (0.2 per cent), though 8.7 per cent of people did not answer this question in the 2001 Census.[143] Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City of London. The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,[144]

Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Batterywhile the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.[145]

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Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey.[146] The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales.[147] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.[148]

St Paul's Cathedral

London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim edifice is London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park.[1

Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery49] Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Middle-Eastern Muslims have based themselves around Mayfair and Knightsbridge in west London.[150][151]

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London is home to the largest mosque in western Europe, the Baitul Futuh Mosque, of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community London's large Hindu community is found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which is home to one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple.[152]

Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery Sikh communities are located in East and West London, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the world outside India.[153] Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe,

Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Batteryovertaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.[154] The community set up the London Jewish Forum in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.[155] Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery


Main articles: Economy of London and Media in London

The City of London is one of the world's largest financial centres alongside New York City.[9][11]

London generates approximately 20 per cent of the UK's GDP[156] (or $446 billion in 2005); while the economy of the London metropolitan area—the largest in Europe—generates approximately 30 per cent of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005).[1Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

57] London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world and vies with New York City as the most important location for international finance.[158][159]

London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments.

Sony VAIO PCG-7154M BatteryAround 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. Currently, over 85% (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

Due to its prominent global role, London's economy has been affected by the late-2000s financial crisis. The City of London estimates that 70,000 jobs in finance will be cut within a year.[160] The City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London insurance market.

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Over half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are located within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.[161]

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Canary Wharf is a major business and financial centre and is home to some of the UK's tallest buildings

Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.[162] The BBC is a significant employer,

Sony VAIO PCG-7194M Batterywhile other broadcasters also have headquarters around the City. Many national newspapers are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.[163]
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The Port of London is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.[164]

London has five major business districts: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.[165][166]

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The Natural History Museum

London is a popular centre for tourism, one of its prime industries, employing the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in 2003,[167] while annual expenditure by tourists is around £15 billion.[168] London attracts over 14 million international visitors per year, making it Europe's most visited city.[169] London attracts 27 million overnight-stay visitors every year.[170] In 2009 the ten most-visited attractions in London were:[171] Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

Main articles: Transport in London and Infrastructure in London

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,[172] however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.

Sony VAIO PCG-81212V BatteryIn 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TfL) and is one of the most extensive in the world. Cycling is an increasingly popular way to get around London.

Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.[173]

The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) or London Transport was created. Transport for London (TfL), Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

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is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.[174]


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Heathrow (terminal 5 pictured) is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic.[175][176]

London is a major international air transport hub with the largest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. London Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon,

Sony VAIO PCG-71112M BatteryWest London, is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.[177] In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.[178

Sony VAIO PCG-81111M Battery] There were plans for a third runway and a sixth terminal however these were cancelled by the Coalition Government on 12 May 2010.[179] In September 2011 a personal rapid transit system was opened at Heathrow to connect to a nearby car park.[180] Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

Similar traffic, with the addition of some low-cost short-haul flights, is also handled at Gatwick Airport, located south of London in West Sussex.[181]

Stansted Airport, situated north east of London in Essex, is the main UK hub for Ryanair and Luton Airport to the north of London in Bedfordshire, caters mostly for low-cost short-haul flights.[182][183] Sony VAIO PCG-51212M...

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parts of london bridge in lake havasu (4)
parts of london bridge in lake havasu (4)
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