If concerns about violence in the suburbs, so we call the "experts", for example ... decide to build a new basketball court. If hooligans engaged in abusive practices on a stage, experts met to decide to install a new fence. Similarly, if a person suffers from discomfort, constant anxiety or poor health, it appoints an expert, a product of an anxiolytic administered. This kind of thinking is pervasive in the system of consumption, "you have a problem to clean your pots ... we have the solution, the product A to talk with. Having problems with your body image? We have the solution ... "The pattern is the same, it is characteristic of our western civilization: for every problem there must be a technical solution. Think the technique is to decompose a problem for the process where it can be given a technical solution.
A closer examination, this type of approach, which is a technical solution, not the root problem is likely to address only the effects without reaching the real causes. It is put ointment on the skin without treating the disease at source. This is brushing the leaves with a cream that gives a nice effect, without addressing the roots of the diseased plant. You can ask serious questions about whether we think our way, including the psychological change to find a real solution and intelligent.
Why do we think that every problem, there must be a technical solution? All the problems they can get a technical solution? Are there areas where the technical solution is valid and others in which the mind works non-technical?
A. The area of technical competence and human
If we get our current use, the technique seems especially designed for a certain mode of the discursive mind (R) compared to medium / fine, the intention to consider the practical solution of a problem. When I use the hotline, because my software does not work, call I am dealing with a technician. The calculation of the time, there is the logic of efficiency. It is not his business to solve the torments of the human person and the ratio is minimized. Technical thinking tends to reduce everything that falls under the category of human utility. (Text), for example, it tends:
a) to seek professional or expert before the problems the government is responsible for: (technicians, promoters, plastic surgeons, psychiatrists, etc.).
b) reduction of an environmental, economic, social, psychological or spiritual in a technical matter,
c) use physical means to be a problem (the basketball court, roasting, Prozac, laundry, etc. prosthesis. to solve). What is the use of technical objects, consumer goods and machinery.
1) the omnipresence and omnipotence should be noted that this way of thinking characteristic of the Western cultural model. see Jacques Ellul (text) Just open the newspaper or watching is likely to see in public life, managed. In politics, if serious social problems, the response of technical thinking "that we will adopt a new law." Or, like traffic accidents, we will give to many deaths. "We are new signs are added and put the radar and much more! "Etc. .. This type of approach to a problem within the family are the parents postmodern considerations vis-à-vis their adult children. No," Our son had with his wife, we pay them to buy a new car, a new washing machine, new curtains for the living room ... "Because" they all be happy "and so on. Response to a purely technical problem, not that. Social violence is a global problem to have, that is, the answer is a legalistic and formal response fragmented. The carnage on the roads, resulting from a problem of general behavior that is more fundamental than just a "lack of courtesy." The answer purely technical panels, Constable and the radar is very limited. Similarly, we can not resolve a conflicting relationship with a collection of objects. The problem is that in another place and it is considered not only as a side deal with technical solutions. The "technical solution" may be an obvious good will, but it often seems to miss the real problems to be an expensive hobby, and sometimes absurd.
There is no doubt that from a practical standpoint, each of us, in a profession that needs to acquire a technical skill. For a doctor to his lawyer, the captain of a ship to be a machine operator at a site must, architect, or plumber, we are committed to the spirit in a specialization. Technical competence implies the acquisition of training and experience, which is given as an implementation. The specialist, over time, more efficiency, and then say, a thorough knowledge of the box. It is rather narrow, more technical mastery is obtained. The process of specialization is the opposite of openness, or culture. An educated man shows a high awareness of the option, he opened his mind, and his sensitivity as an experience of stakeholders developed by a world that goes beyond the exercise of a form of activity . Conversely, technical thinking leads to a narrowing of thought to a form of activity and an object type and a single. The thought of a specialist who is a specialist, more and more "technical" and, finally, he can not his knowledge with colleagues or classmates. In the field of techno-science, the extreme fragmentation of knowledge led to its esotericism. Technical idea is expressed in a linear manner in the binding assay and technical problem solving. (Text) We know that the great skill of the expert in a particular area does not guarantee its human qualities. It can be very competent, very efficient with a technical standpoint and also human social behavior, a lack of integrity in moral matters. Technical thinking does not, ask about the purpose of the people in question, it is attached to a funding review. As we mentioned already noticed in the areas of marketing, good seller, "who would sell anything." He trained for it. Ultimately, we can see that this effect is found wherever the specialization . A good lawyer is an expert in the rhetoric of justice, a position, a jury in his favor back, although probably knows that his client is guilty. It can be very competent as a doctor, but together with the narrow-mindedness, lack of interpersonal skills and moral scruples. It's not a contradiction. Technical competence is the only thing that human qualities are different. It is not contradictory, what can be said of each technical area. thinking technique is not a form of culture. Even if they developed, and especially if it is with an expert, it does not harm human qualities. In fact, characterized in terms of technology thought his objectivity, and it is absolutely detached from the real object, subjective in nature and separate from life. It is not designed to make life in its subjectivity, namely, even what is done in a holistic manner. It is specialized. This is his characteristic par excellence. It is a common criticism: the single "expert" thinks mechanically and it tends to oversimplify. ( text)
Now, the relationship is life is a complex whole relationship, and this relationship must be itself alive. Life is complex, and the man is very complex. Approach to life, it is necessary to understand them as a whole and everything to an infinity of relations around. To understand what life is, what is the nature of mind, knowing it is necessary to leave aside the technical and specialized thought because it is totally inadequate. To understand the people who put aside each fragment analysis. The hallmark of science is in the current situation to their object divide caused by the storage drawer in the conceptual framework of man (the voters, citizens, consumers, the believer ...) to define. For the living individual and the entire complex, living where he lives meet, we must put aside our usual attitude. The process of specialization puts blinders on intelligence and inertia defines a trend of mental stability. Technical thought brings the mind into a rut and just in the confrontation with real life and concrete, it is important to think out of the rut in a file. Lively, fresh and creative understanding of life requires an open, unprejudiced, a global vision, the fear that the unity in diversity and high adaptability. The man who is an expert is not integrated, he specializes in one direction. "To understand the process of life, we need a comprehensive action plan and a comprehensive understanding of all time and be careful not specialized." Thought technically its size, is the control of hazardous material . (Text) In other words, what we need is to approach life with sensitivity and intelligence, not in technical training. (Text)
2) How can we describe as one whose personality shines very clearly on the technical thinking? We say that this is a very human. My dentist is very competent but also very human. The doctor who is very human in its relationship with the patient is not alone as "patient" as an expert in antique furniture, which are measured. It is not the only aspect of the object of his specialties is reduced. Captain ceases to be arrogant and fragile, if it exceeds its part and then only consider the "passenger" to see people. The peasant who looks with love the earth is no longer the "farmer" (!) He sees his relationship with nature in a lively, which always means, in relation to the total population. There is no prohibition on the plumber to put aside the disappointment of the pipe, a conversation with a man he will then stop, as the search for a buyer to do! We also hope that our political "technocrats" less and take into account the human dimension of these problems. We also hope that the judge is not rigid, technical manifestation of the register of strict legality and called equity. A spirit of "technicians" closely in a rut, which is nothing but a technical reaction to the provocation of life reflects a narrow-minded, often resulting in a loss of common sense.
Culture was once called "humanities." It is quaint and outdated. The word humanity must have a dusty smell of parchment, which none of our post-modern sense of smell. We live in an era of consumption dizziness, high technologies, and commercialization of religion. It is too clear that in education we have today to train as a "skills" and not "the humanities". Our education system is in the market for "functional individuals," as the economy is on the market for consumer products. When approached with a little interest in education, it is to say that it is not "social integration" is necessary. This has nothing to do with integrity, but with a rational storage (built as a product on the supermarket shelf is part of a package). Regarding the development of sense of humanity, we can each in itself and because it is difficult to do some due diligence and in the majority contrefichent. Freedom of thought is a marginal note. Especially when not a single book s' opens after 30 years. Because of the strong against us accompany the training of specialists, we encourage hyper-format, the spirit of the kindergarten to high school. (Text) There is no question that the individual itself, but a powerful support what they think and how they think they do. It is called education as "training". Note that the word is well chosen. More technicians are "trained "and his sense of humanity is distorted. When he returned to high schools to provide staff, it will only pass on the thought that he has received: technical thinking. It will take decisions on his own life for the community life of the planet and the "technician". They will appreciate the competence and incompetence will hate, practiced rational methods of any kind until he learns that the experience of the profit motive is not the only measure of value that people are not machines, that life is beyond all this complexity in his brain has learned to master. It is not enough down here to be a competent, that the world is waiting, it is especially rich men of their humanity. The irony is that these companies, the engineer of the freight, the first "asylum" are qualities of man have been determined, is shown. Competence, it is easy to win in the sphere of action, an employer automatically the case. Disadvantages with the extent of the impersonal view, gentleness, patience, integrity, honesty, fairness, generosity, knowledge of the nature of mind and functioning of the ego and so on. are not elements that are part of the training. Students, as they say (!), "A something to learn of life "by entering the world of work (!). But then, what he learned in school about the meaning of life? Nothing. education of the university is not he give a universal knowledge? No, the classes in our world today does nothing fundamental. (Text) The science of life is not in the house today, the training of a skill is everywhere (!).
B. technology as a system
However, we have seen, there was not enough to keep technology in its current use or an instrumental point of view, this is, the only relationship in the midst of view / fine. The technique is a phenomenon characteristic of a legacy that is rooted in modernity. The middle relationship / fine, as found in the relationship tool / hand is very simple. It is largely inapplicable to our current technological context. We need to dust off the old theories. (Text) We are not always regress to the caveman in the world we live in to understand! It is equally ridiculous to continue to discuss the moral duality technical advantages and disadvantages. All this is good only for newsrooms little schoolboy. The idea is not a technical section on the use of tools, it is a mindset that has been characteristic of our technological civilization. See Jacques Ellul, technology and the challenge of the century.
1) The solution of the problem in historical perspective is just useless. It is much more interesting to examine how a process of reflection. It seems that through technology, it is the thought itself, which found its maturity, as is a rational approach. The technical characteristics of the land as indicated, Jacques Ellul, is to "reflect on the purpose of the issue of effectiveness. She noted that each medium is capable of delivering invented, and the means it provides the technical operation of a choice made to maintain the discrimination more effective, best suited for this purpose, and then we will have a capacity to have a reduced .. what is actually the most effective, it is the face of the clearest account of its technical side, "The manager thought the slogan technical Ellul summarized in" seeking the best in all areas. " This is what one is best, purely technical and it is the accumulation of these agents, which offers a technological civilization.
The technical problem is the concern of the vast majority of people today, "to seek in all things, absolutely the most effective way." The word "absolutely" has a precise meaning. What is in this context? For technical thinking, "this is actually a path to higher in absolute terms, the calculation is based. Find to say, in most cases in the calculation of absolute lake typical of the concept of "techno". (See Jacques Ellul, The Technological Bluff)
Who made the choice of the method, the specialist mathematics shows its superiority is made. "It is a means of science, science technology, developed by and by." For in other words, the technical thought of the target utility, it is objectively the process by which we act solely in terms of quantifiable research and policy for its own good. This is exactly in the same specialty. It is the gradual contamination of this mode of thought, characterized at the expense of other types of fear that their own technical civilization. "Our civilization is primarily a means of civilization, and it seems that in reality means of modern life are more important than the ends. Another design is an idealist." Design "idealistic" technology will make a presentation to admit that there would have to precede them, and they bring that out of all proportion to reality technology, we like under the eyes. We have seen that Descartes thought he could give to technology for a purpose outside itself, it could be to improve the health of the man she was to occur. Descartes was a moral end to the technique. But it has long been the technique has gained in this respect the independence. "A key feature of the technique is not a moral judgment ... to support, and resolutely independent, eliminating field its moral judgment. It is never subjected to such discrimination, and tends to be a" technology moral "to create totally independent"! Speaking of "misuse" of technology, it is an obsolete language, not to keep that part of his representation. "The driver of the car that blew up his engine to be abused . And this has nothing to do with our moralists would use the technology. "The engineer did" abuse "in this sense it is an aspect of good / bad part of his thought. It is forbidden to remain silent and that the driver returns three pedestrians by speeding. It is not his problem is a world of thought alien to him. This is not the case. It is not his "moral art" and n has never received his mention of an equivalent technical training. Ellul concludes: "In fact, there is absolutely no difference between the technique and its use so we formulate the following principle Man with an exclusive selection of faces use technology, as it will, according to technical rules. or not to use it at all but impossible to use other rules as a technique. "The technology is simple and linear thinking, because it makes no difference between the technique and its use. This is what explains the ease with which they can be purchased, because it is a very basic mental structure, free of any complexity based on: streamlining.
What is rationalization? The trial of explanatory science is a real reduction in understandable, so they know to manage. The technical study "is centered around, this is what explains the development of moral and political doctrines in the early nineteenth century to be taken. We seriously anything that creates a mandate for the expression. At the same time, as never before used the funds for the development of this order. "rationalization is an order of reality at all costs that go with it, including the police are resources that applies the same logic to the order. At this point, Heidegger is quite right when he describes the technical term with embarkation.
2) In other words, the technology, as a whole and in its application as a system that simulates artificial self-reference of life. Jacques Ellul, in his own way of expressing a particular focus on different characters: the automatism of technical choice, personal growth, indivisibility, universality and autonomy.
a) The technique of rationalization involves the automatic selection. "If everything was measured was calculated that the method is determined, the intellectual point of view is satisfactory, and that, in practice, it is more efficient, more effective than other methods previously used or specified competition at the same time , the technical management of themselves ... There is no such thing as choice in size between 3 and 4 4 is greater than 3 ... The decision on the technology, is currently in the same order there is no choice between two technical approaches.: required, as will inevitably be counted, measured, are not in dispute, and "The Spirit of Nature engineer obeyed without a doubt, the inertia of the mechanism. . (Text) The operation that you have not before, genetic manipulation, and now that it was not available, can be done a few years ago is not subject to the election. It comes sooner or later in practice. When can we do? Why not? This does not mean that it should take to mechanical impact. There is no question of allowing people to vote, the technical system which mechanically supports the decision. In this regard, the Ethics Commission are required to "acclimations Gardens" for all the innovations to be inevitable. "The worst condemnation that could be our modern world, is it correct to say that so and so a system that prevents automated technique"! Stated in a little paradoxical, because after the age of selection supports a technological civilization, "there is absolutely no freedom of choice. We are currently in the historical development of the elimination of all that is not technical. " It is believed that the technology has gained a degree of superiority won exclusive and therefore de facto unlimited power: "There is no equivalent power in the world." Power of any human will release a power, an empire which earned translates into a resounding success. Since the matrix of our collective thinking is the technology itself, we believe the problem to solve. Conversely, we have all the trouble to understand that technology can give source of endless problems. Our commitment to the spiritual world of technology is such that we come to the conclusion that "the technical answer is currently a matter of life or death for everyone." We believe that 'TODAY' Today, every man is not a place to live, if this technician out. "
b) The technique involves the rationalization of its self-growth, independently of any regulatory intervention on the part of man. One might think that the technical phenomenon of a social phenomenon, is a trance and passion. "All men of our time so passionate about technology, so sure of his superiority, so deep in the technical community, without exception, all are based on technological progress, it will all work there, as throughout the World No 'for each company looking for technical improvements. "But what happened, what matters is less the whole process of self-development, the initiative is a real unique piece. When the man in the flow of technology, there is no other choice but to be carried out by his power. Historically, small and individual discoveries are not isolated, they are synthesized in technical progress and manifest themselves in their own temporal synchrony in the form of applications. And: "In Germany, Norway, USSR, France, was looking on the same place in 1939 and what are the circumstances which gave the superiority of the U.S. invasion of Norway and France, the collapse of the Germany a few months. discovery, the lack of resources and raw materials, the USSR seems to Barbary, Michel Henry sees only in the technical sense of synchronicity, but he says Jacques Ellul rigorously by the same direction. Regardless of location, whether in the published results of progress, a technique must, sooner or later, without mercy. The technique itself produces, and have a geometric progression, in other cases. The engine was developed in its wake a whole cascade of requests outside its domain first. And we could fill pages and pages of similar examples.
c) The technique, as a phenomenon, a single vehicle of thought and is spreading like normalizes itself an indivisible whole. Certainly, between the different techniques, so superficial, we tried to highlight differences. Between agricultural sprayers, fertilizers marked culture, computing, automotive and appliances, it seems that we are dealing with very different techniques. But diversity is only apparent, it is a profound unity of principle and it is very easy to recognize the identity of the characters. Mechanization is evident. The spirit is everywhere the same technician. The "agricultural expert" (I'm not the farmer), does not feel strange to face the world of appliances and computers. It is the key to understanding, and he sees very well that to be separated from other areas of the field already. Would you be so naive that is unlike anything to be connected in the world of technology. Is grafted onto the world of art works systemically and its internal control loops are all crushing the dominant economy in the world. It is unrealistic to look for contrasts between the different techniques, but what is striking that nothing can be separated and that works on the same principles. The apologists of technology must be in a strange twist of intellectual sleight of success in a particular area, hiding the side effects and the base unit to engage the whole. This is also why the separation between technology and the use of what was actually invented freely. "The technical phenomenon can not be separated, to keep what is good and all that is evil. It has mass, it is indestructible. "
c) The universality of the phenomenon of art is so obvious that it can hardly be disputed. It has a direct impact on community life, as it reaches the full effect of the different cultures of our planet. It has a direct impact on individuals, it is independent of its activity, it can not handle escape.
There is no need for a "Western", its appropriation to the use of information technology, nuclear fission, the astronomical techniques of packaging or marketing. The technique does not require a high degree of civilization and culture to assimilate. It easily absorbed man who uses it, if the procedures are in his hands. The effects they produce are exactly the same as that happens there, and logic is the same everywhere. As Ellul says, Echo, a study by Mr. Vogt occurs, the progression of the destruction of the natural environment with an "unstoppable method Panzer Division" (text) on the planet. What fascinates the non-Western peoples, this is not the will of human rights, culture and science in general, but the technique. "As of the Conference of Vevey (1960), when the problem is the first time for the underdeveloped countries as food, the obsession with technology, the point of what they want (and what we offer!) Dark, it was industrialization, the worst for an indefinite period of evil. "Contrary to what is sometimes said, this is not the import of a lifestyle in which the cultures of First traditional Western mining. What civilizations essentially standardized, it is technology itself. Technology is probably the only concrete universal of postmodernism, for the rest, in the cultural field, or values that we are in the most complete relativism. What interests us today on trade between civilizations, it is the technological exchange. In the present state of our mind is when we come into contact with another civilization in the universe, we are looking for ... a change in technology! Historically, we know that civilizations have broken their isolation from the war and trade. But in fact if you look closely, that victory brings, that the defeat of command, it is the recognition of technical superiority. For our current indicates that it is economically valuable trade ... Technologies. If we think what is most important for communication between people, we must add that communication is meaningless ... by communication techniques. Information technology is the queen of the same technologies as the one who manipulates the virtual trick technique.
d) The autonomy of the phenomenon has a technical meaning and their own intuition, which was clearly stated by Taylor. In anticipation of cybernetics, Taylor takes as its starting point the idea that the plant is "a closed body," it is an end in itself. Who discourage the plant that the real purpose of the book is made to stay on his plan. This is the meaning of the autonomy of art. We have seen that the word meant autonomy "to give its own law." The "self" in question here is the technical system itself The formulation of the law is very simple, it is in one word: efficiency. The word "law" does not have the legal sense, scientific or metaphysical. It's hard causation, as it is at work in the mechanistic paradigm. "The laws obeyed, which is the technical organization, it is no longer the law and wrong, but the laws in the purely technical sense." The spirit "techno" techno-science claims in the context of technical efficiency. If the technology was in a situation of heteronomy, which would mean he would be out of something other than itself. It n is not difficult to show that indeed, this is not the case.
According to Ellul, is the idea that this technology would depend on the economy far exceeded. Rather, it is the engine of the economy itself, which otherwise have little problem. If you are struggling with billions to buy computer companies to get their hands on patents on high-tech sectors, technology is appropriate, because we know that real power is knowledge.
It also has an easy to defend the independence and sovereignty of the policy towards the area of technology, but the rhetoric lectures ill-concealed, the practice is that the policy is clearly for the technology, with the aim of order to promote. Ideological differences are practically games media that the public believes that there is still the highest decision-making body. But what they conceal is a perfect match, a field of no contest with respect to the undeniable need for and value of technology. This explains why, for example, the right and left, no one questions the validity of the notion of growth. Make a serious and intelligent criticism would be to directly challenge the technique, or the official policy is for citizens, not citizens of the environment, suggesting a massive agreement for the technical system.
Finally, the dependence of technology vis-à-vis morality, we have seen is more than questionable. There is a famous passage of the technical difficulty of the century or Ellul is especially noteworthy in this regard:
"Technology does not support any judgment, accepts no limits, it is because much of the technology that science has determined that the general principle: Each house .. Judge morale moral issues, issues regarding technical, it has nothing to do there technical criteria. are brought into play ... The technique provides a systematic and theoretically the freedom they had actually won. you no longer need to fear any restriction, because they are beyond good and evil. He has long claimed that he was part of neutral objects, there is now no longer useful, its power, its autonomy is guaranteed, so that in turn is edifying moral judge of a new moral . ! "(Video)
So there are reasons to think in terms of motivation of technical solutions "that are not a real conscious choice. They obey mechanically connected to a system of thought which is simply the matrix representation of our collective dominant position. (Text )
C. The man and the spectral range of technical
The technology has reached such a degree of autonomy, which is now known that human existence is in reference to him and not vice versa defined, so it must go back and forth by the Declaration of instrumental man-tool for understanding the world borrowed, in which we live. The unrelenting growth of technology is changing the man in his image and creates a virtual fourth dimension defines much of humanity passes through the physical, vital and mental, as it was inherited from the path of evolution . This is not necessarily the emergence of the spiritual and its manifestation, as some would have us believe, but an artificial simulation of the spiritual, as a byproduct of self-development of technology.
Artificial intelligence, machine: 1) The world of technology is the expansion of a mentality, where the dimension of conscious humanity, has been neutralized and that mentality is that of a mere technician proliferate. We have known for centuries that man is the weakest link in the technology. We turn now to a time when we really need to keep ", that man has to do something important in the context of operations, because it is from him that this happened." Even the expression "To err is human" has played a role as blatant today, but it is not at all on a substantive discussion on free will, as Descartes believed, even theological bias. Not if err human, it is because the machine is better, faster and error free! The implicit idea is that "wherever possible, we have this source of error to remove the complete elimination of man, and soon we see very good results. "Man is an impediment to progress," and even "in the context of modern man is currently considered a failure". I always quote Jacques Ellul, "the technician can only agree with reports of conscious decisions of Mr. Jungk" We have for example that for the phone, there is 10% of erroneous calls, knows way: as man to abuse such a perfect device, "What is your computer today! They are perfect for people with disabilities to become impotent and irrelevant. The proportion of" users "man capable of doing face a real computer is very, very small. By nature, anyway, "the electronic brain has an intellectual power that no man can have." It is the perfection of the whole mental machine. And as Mental calculator for us is the most complete form of intelligence, as we experience a boundless admiration for the calculation of mechanical power in all areas, it is inevitable that we on the machine Günter Anders called the Promethean shame, the humiliation we feel inferior to her.
The machine follows a cold logic. It has no scruples. It does not make this confusion subjectivity, arbitrariness and chaos, the fate of humanity. It works. So that man can reach, even to the extent that they must themselves functionally. And that's all. Again to quote Jacques Ellul: "The joys and sorrows of man hinder his technical skills lord Jungk cites the case of the test pilot who had to leave her job because". His wife has behaved which reduces its ability to escape: every day, when he returned home he found that tears of joy. Become a "voluntary accident" that he feared the disaster, as he faced a difficult situation. When the man with the technique must be strictly unconscious of itself, without which his reflexes and his concerns are no longer appropriate. "
Man must be "worked through the technical," his education has to carry out a systematic and rehabilitation with a "human adaptation to technology, all burrs that his personal determination to remove the design perfectly introduces the organization. "Learn to think to think" art "unlearn" human ". A technocracy after the impersonal logic of technology is, but beware, it has nothing to do with the acquisition of a conscience clearer, more impartial, less vulnerable to fluctuations in the emotional. No, it's impersonal technology, the introduction of a system of thought is to obey the constraints and the logic of art, no doubt, a thought in the study of technology for technology's regulated, thinking artificial intelligence that governs identified technical development. It is not at all the same. It is this detail that we can make the difference between the fourth dimension fourth virtual and real spiritual dimension.
An unresolved, is the man to follow the progress of technical inadequacy. It has no future in this world. It's a dog in a bowling game. A gene. A shame that the correction can be sent to reeducation camp for adequate training, which is also his only chance to survive in the cutthroat world of work. Without this training can be done? Nothing. As O.S. in a factory! Now this is the worst figure in the fitting technique, since it amounts to a chain for workers from one machine to machine to the work of a mechanical performance. Or a mechanical design is not a job because she has lost all human intervention to work. It is true that such a regime, it is easy to reassure people that it provides jobs. What admirable machine is man! It supports all! The result of this extraordinary reversal is that we now proudly say, these monstrosities: The machines that "work" because they perform tasks and carry out the workers say, the mechanical tasks like robots, they are "operational" chain! At the word "work" changed the direction, it was only a technical matter. Thus, all the classic division of the analysis of the proposed work in this philosophy books, in our context is a quaint archaism.
If we now place at the political level, there is no doubt that the employer takes the common technical competence and divided the oppressed. This is the logic of the system engineer, which governs the organization of industry and commerce. Written and directed by Alain Resnais' My American uncle, the fate of the character played by Depardieu, did not support, can meet the challenge of competing against a newcomer to the company more "techie" than him. Thus, in a technological civilization, the outsiders are not the first "social", they are the first "technical" inadequate and therefore they have become sociopaths, because they did not do the framework defined by the technology, to adapt. Non-technical, man is nothing, and is related to the brink of failure to reach displaced by the centrifugal force of the technical system. However, given that the technical system is pervasive, as we have never been trained to think differently to get through his life, there is not exactly viable margin. More world of technology side, more desert, more natural, more loneliness, for nothing in particular. You can not deny the car, the power line, highway, computers, mobile phones, etc.. We are not in India, where it is recognized that perhaps a certain age, a man like Swami Ramdas, (read the pilgrimage very funny books) let alone lead to something on the way to a spiritual quest and socio-ever be monitored. In the West, such an individual is good for the police station or a psychiatric hospital. According to the precepts of emulation, social growth and competition, there is no choice as technical adjustments. One can always argue in politics, in reality, the choice of the company that controls all others is acquired: that of a technical civilization. We certainly will not discuss what is tacitly assumed. The rest is just chatter snack and a politician. (Lesson)
2) Obviously, in all this man is a bit lost in déserrance in a world that is inherently foreign. We never asked him a lot. Not a lot of pressure now on hold.
The pressure of the order of the first space. We pointed out the difference between where Aristotle and the Cartesian space. Technical thinking for yourself has its "environment" in which the Cartesian geometry is evident all around us product. Like it or not, "the environment in which man lives is not the middle. It must adapt, as the first time in the world, the universe is made, for which n ' is not. Man of six miles an hour and it's miles. It is made to eat when hungry and sleep when he is tired, and it obeys the clock. It is made for contact with living beings, and he lives in a world of stone. It is the unity of his being, and he is torn by all the forces of the living environment over time. "where they were traditional, landscape, we speak of" environment ", where we used to talk about nature," We have now to speak of. "This vocabulary is already a confession of our technical report on space. We shape our cities, so parking is easy and traffic is not impeded. It is an obsession with so-called "planning" and "planning" (still a purely technical vocabulary). Especially in neighborhoods and cities built in 60-80 years, to see what was the so-called "urban" in the automotive industry forward, determined with a view of the "traffic" traffic. A city is a network of pipes and even if we are to build temples to the glory of culture, we give them the appearance of a refinery, see the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Our houses are packed with equipment. Our food is industrially. Our synthetic clothing. Our habitat is generally limited and artificial. (See text André Gorz) We are so used to initiate the contact with nature in most of us feel uncomfortable. We are at 2000 meters the easiest to find in the cafeteria, with TV screens, background music, a soda, it is more "human", this huge void outside enemy. A field, it is nice grid. We feel the power of art the man! A forest is always worrisome. Forest rejects you if you have close contact with her. Fortunately, to reduce this fear, technology is still there: you can go with a Walkman on your ears! Soon we will be watching the video glasses together a football game!
The pressure of the order of an hour. We live under the dictates of the time, as determined by the technique. This does not mean that this is what is under the stress of modern life. We can not understand how he could come to a house very well might not rotate. If you live in the natural time, is specific and qualitatively. In the field of technical thought, we live in an abstract time, where time is the amount, where the pace in the second, minute, hour, has nothing to do with his life. Now we can measure the impact of technical thinking on habitat by counting the number of clocks in the house. Impressive, often by more than one piece! With clock, alarm clock, clock anywhere, you are constantly called to order, you can not escape the need for time management. And the technique of time management is to think for yourself! Hence the obsession with speed. We need to live fast, because the technology is faster. "Mumford to say that the machine is the largest of our civilization. The clock is correct, he is still entitled to it, which all modern progress, is what allows any efficiency through fast and coordination of all the facts of everyday life. "The postmodern world is a world where" it moves "and then a lot of damage, we do nothing. The postmodern man is alternately hyperactive and incredibly passive. The speed with which must be monitored constantly generates a constant fear. Our psychiatrists now agree that the common denominator of our spiritual restlessness that lies in the relationship over time is demonstrated.
It does not matter, and whatever the difficulties, he, according to Jacques Ellul, whenever possible, "worked by such methods," the second program involved in the expression, that is, the order of technical skills used to tell people is to be implemented. It is possible to educate the technical means to implement the adjustment, while saying that now that we have to humanize technology. A full program. But in fact (not ideal), it is converted to technical discourse through the adaptation of man, or the study of man to adapt to a technological world? addition to the benefits of ergonomics at the workstation, it There was definitely some serious progress in the humanities to social behavior in a technical context to illuminate. But to fully understand what is consciousness, consider the need for a comprehensive understanding of life is another matter. In current state of things, nothing official iota change the human spirit of art and do not alter the relationship between man and nature.
This is evidenced by the disadvantage that, on all education programs, what are the practical implications of technology on our thinking: that is, to put us in the world, to consider what is meaningful for us and great interest. But the technology is ready to absorb all the activity with an objective structure. The general trend of our societies, wherever possible, to gradually replace the man by the machine. At the top of our values, now has more free time than work ... But in him, that the impact of technology is more! Some authors have been tempted to believe that from the time when man is freed from all work through the machine, he devote himself to his spiritual development in the field of culture. We would then be asked to retrieve the beautiful ideal of the Greek spirit-wise in a healthy body, but this time the slaves with the help of machines and not human. But what we have this hard-won freedom? What we spend our leisure time? The time savings should not be released from the spirit of art in the development of the knowledge of being and lifestyle?
This is not what we see around us, because leisure is more absorbed by the power of virtualization technology. We love gadgets, and we are the spoiled children of the technology. We pay special devotion to the representation which is born of technological marvels. It has been repeated often enough, it's technical civilization, the civilization of the image. We are a virtual representation of the exponential. The virtual is the byproduct of the ideal, the quintessence of the productive imagination of the technical thought. The dominance of the virtual representation is all around us is no longer in question. The postmodern man has one foot on the floor and the second in a form of virtual reality. It is never completely quiet here, and at the same time there. This is what causes the use of mobile phones irresistible. The common idea of the power of the postmodern man is transmitted as a video loop advertising on television. What is called public opinion is largely a byproduct of television. It's not really a "brainstorming" (real community) and even less of a "thinking along" (thoughts of a community). Marked between the game console, the advertising images of the street, film and television, post-modern man is used to go through life like a ghost. He returned to his position as the actual experience and his body of flesh less frequently. Every day, he fled and his reality is divided into the paintings, in dazzling ecstasy joined productions of the dream. Between classes the high school student delves into the music with its MP3 player, or he leaves his cell phone. At present, with forward, he expects that the time to return. must zap the course. On television, even war appears as a video game. A show. Only it's not the economy, the politics, education, religion and art through the skylight of television? Show. Contrary to what the existentialists, today, the decay is no longer being thrown into the world; decline in the fourth virtual dimension is raised. This is not just the Internet, a recent headline, a "disturbing ecstasy", but the results overall technical thought in the minds of post-modern man after. Now, it is very difficult to say where to start, and his thoughts begin where those of others. The other thought in their media, such an empire that earned him his replaced and that the slope again to the ease of inertia, and the door just what he means by more than s have an idea which is the his. Promoting mass of our world today is in line with the acculturation. The only thought that consistently in people's minds today is one that reflects his practical commitment in the world. So the thought of technical experts in its work.
It is therefore not surprising that in our present context, we can no longer think in terms of technical solutions. Specifically, our kind of technical problem and, of course, technical problems, there is a technical solution. We thought so technical that we do not equate to approach life in a different way (text) design. We even convinced us that the technical thought was a form of culture, it is not clear. There is no contradiction between a technologically advanced civilization and a world of dark, morbid, morally barbaric and uncultured....