"Sexting, bunga bungalow, Outraged, stop and go, eurozone, femicide ... are some new words or resignified to designate the most striking events of the last twelve months."
The language is adapted to life. We constantly create, disseminate or updating terms to name the unpublished until yesterday . A list of some of the words that brought the 2011 in order "not alphabetical."
And SEXPIC SEXTING
Contrary to popular belief, the practice of sending photos bold ( sexting ) is not new . It comes from the depths of time. Some historians assert that Majas a Goya-dressed, the other bare-can be classified as a historical record of the current sexpic (short for picture sex or sexual picture). And long before Scarlett Johansson and, had also photographed nude for private purposes.
But 2011 will be the year of the outbreak of sexting. Today, make the difference technology, social networking and virtual espionage. Millions of avid eyes across the world could see the beautiful Scarlett as God brought the world - thanks to the services of a hacker , detected by the FBI and brought to justice-in a series of photographs she it took to send to her husband at the time, actor Ryan Reynolds . Portraits which became the heritage of all Internet users and increased the admiration for the actress.
He had the same luck with your sexpic the representative of the Democratic Party of the United States, Anthony Wiener , 47, whom the grace of Twitter mistakenly published the picture of masculine attributes cost him the race.
Bunge and Bunge RUBYGATE
Between late 2010 and early this year the then Italian Premier still caught up in a new sex scandal, this time, had legal consequences. The suspicion that would have maintained intimate relations with a minor, the young Moroccan Karima Ruby on Mahroug, brought to justice to open an investigation into child prostitution. The episode that incriminates the Cavaliere would have taken place in the context of the parties that the Italian prime minister used to organize in different houses.
And it was in the testimonies of the many young people who attended them, with the expectation of their way to fame , among other compensation, which emerged the term "bunga bunga-" to describe sex sessions group.
Most striking of all was the revelation that Berlusconi had learned the word from his friend Muammar Gaddafi, the Libyan leader overthrown and killed this year.
The initials and last name of former director general of the International Monetary Fund, Dominique Strauss Kahn, became familiar to everyone from his name was tarnished by scandal when a hotel maid in New York Sofitel denounced him for sexual assault and attempted rape. The French economist and politician were arrested and handcuffed her photograph as a criminal went around the world.
After a few weeks of house arrest-million-guarantee by the prosecutor dropped the charges , but the initials DSK did not leave the front page of newspapers. In France, the former officer as expected more complaints, and also their counterattack was swift. Details on how the incidents were chained at the Sofitel paid to the theory that DSK was actually the victim of a plot aimed at out of the race for the presidency of France. The story is not over.
STOP AND GO
The death of Amy Winehouse at age 27 as the British artist was at the peak of his career with the term spread is called in English the tendency of some people with alcohol addiction subjected to periods of abstinence and then fall into the drink. This dangerous habit is what led to the death of the singer, according to the conclusion of the specialists who performed his autopsy.
A tragic end to spread this term has already won its place in the world press but has not yet been recognized by the academy or the law. Two young French students were brutally raped and murdered in a tourist reserve in northern Argentina while doing a walk. The case of Cassandre Bouvier and Houria Moumni shook public opinion and the father of the first one has undertaken a crusade to femicide is recognized as a specific category of crime.
A term that in the past at other intervals had appointed libertarian history, as the Prague Spring in 1968 for a few months when Czechoslovakia opened a crack in the oppressive Soviet Communist system, now came to baptize the rebellion that began in Tunisia against 24-year dictatorship and then spread like wildfire throughout the North Africa and Middle East, affecting Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria , among others.
It was the common epithet of the thousands who, beset by economic crisis and its social consequences, took to the places in Madrid and other Spanish cities to protest against the political system to which they blame for their situation and always be in favor or service of the most powerful. The so-called 15-M Movement for their start date through May -15, was characterized as apolitical and basically consisted of long camps and assemblies "outraged" in public places.
No lack of criticism of the political ambiguity of these groups, their lack of organizational and leadership. Nevertheless, the protests continued and spread to other cities of France, UK, Italy, and Japan and even reached the United States, where the most significant camp took place in the heart of financial power: Wall Street, New York.
Despite his suspect action during the crisis of 2008-when the note remained high banks and insurers that then collapsed, these debt rating agencies regained prominence this year.
Worldwide there are over 60 but who have real influence are called Big Three: Standard & Poor's, Fitch and Moody's.
In 2011 made the news again because the three downgraded the ratings of almost all European countries, one by one. And in December, following the deepening crisis, S & P warned it could make a degradation "collective" of the 17 Eurozone countries, including those that enjoy the highest reputation as a debtor (AAA), case of France and Germany .
S & P was made by history. In the first week of August he took the issuer of the great retreat of investors (government bonds or U.S. Treasury Bonds) AAA note (zero risk). From this measure, the European crisis contagion to other countries and the global recession fears gripped markets. They were undoubtedly poor film this year.
An acronym that was on everyone's lips. It is the best qualification for debtor countries to put the rating agencies. This year was known for much of the planet from S & P decided to take it away from the bonds of debt in the U.S. by the increased indebtedness of the economy and delayed the legislative debate that would authorize increased issuance of required the government to pay expenses and obligations. America was just a few hours of falling into default by the lack of agreement among parliamentarians. From this decision, the countries that still maintain the triple A (Australia, Canada, Germany, France, etc.) are striving to preserve it as a great treasure. Losing the cost of borrowing more expensive debt and would pay more interest on sovereign bonds.
There is a new word, of course. It means cessation or suspension of payments and has happened in several countries throughout history. In recent times, one of the most striking was that of Argentina in 2001. But a decade later, the default shadow hangs over the most developed countries, mainly Europeans. The fear of investors that Greece becomes the first nation in the Eurozone in not complying with their obligations given to Anglo-Saxon word a global currency. The jitters spread to other economies with high debt .
Another term European debt crisis became fashionable. The EU and the IMF came to the aid of Greece, Ireland, and Portugal. Hungary asked for it on their own. Spain and Italy were close but resisted the onslaught of advertising markets in return for very harsh austerity plans. Were "too big to fail ".
EURO AND EUROZONE
The single currency is in crisis and therefore so is the call made by 17 Eurozone countries. The debacle in Greece stripped the weaknesses of the macro-block. Currently, the EU seeks to reestablish strict rules of fiscal discipline. Members who do not accept them be shut out of the new Europe.
E-BOOK AND TABLETS
No terms or new objects are, of course, but 2011 was the year of the consecration of these technological advances. The tablets were definitely the stars of the technology. Electronic books have a long way to go, but this year showed improvements in technology that underpin the way to the masses. In fact, last May, Amazon announced that it sold more e-books than printed books.
FUKUSHIMA AND TSUNAMI
The name of Fukushima, a Japanese nuclear power plants will go down in history as at the time Chernobyl (Soviet plant which produced the first major atomic accident) as synonymous with disaster. The earthquake and subsequent waves giant that hit the Northeast Asian archipelago permanently registered in the global lexicon the word tsunami, that is the Japanese word that designates a tsunami.
Coalesce Under that name, in fact, many different "cibermilitantes" in the same line of computer attacks WikiLeaks combined with political activism. However, unlike the hosts of Assange, hackers who call themselves Anonymous members are active throughout the world, often improvised and individual, and other coordinated group. They had a strong 2011, supported popular uprisings Spring-attacking Arab sites of authoritarian rule - joined the "outraged" Spanish, fought child pornography and reached even to hit the heart of Wall Street. They put date at the end of Facebook, but could not meet its goal. In the region, the main computer attacks were motivated by environmental issues, the Hydro Aysén project in Chile and the Conga mining project in Peru - the freedom of press in Ecuador, the Chilean student conflict and the drug war in Mexico.