Cairo (PL) Ruled by a military junta which Hosni Mubarak decided to hand over power in February 2011 Egypt rocked by riots released and sent him immersed in peaceful elections, preceded by no less disturbing events. The wave of popular protests in November in Tahrir Square and Alexandria, and lethal repression of the police has made clear the disappointment of those certified as consumer revolution to overthrow the "rais" (president, in Arabic) at the beginning of the year.The high explosive cocktail of social dissatisfaction, exacerbated by poverty and rampant unemployment, a coercive regime which stifled political dissent and blatant fraud in the parliamentary elections of 2010, took to the streets to millions of Egyptians.The uprising was triggered also the pride of the inhabitants of the most populous and influential country in the Arab world, for others with pharaonic legacy, which were determined to emulate the small Tunisia.If the Tunisians took nearly a month to force the flight of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, on January 14, the Egyptians achieved in 18 days ending on February 11 with a 30-year government security apparatus was solid and the blessing the United States.The Revolution christened January 25 took to the streets to a rebellious youth, by making use of new technologies and social networks mobilized millions and grabbed the world's eyes, especially for his civility and peaceful attitude of the protagonists .The revolt ended, however, more than 850 deaths, especially in the first week, and thousands wounded, whose claim in Tahrir in November was one of the motives of the protests crushed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces ( CSFA).
Excessive repression of anti-riot forces caused 42 deaths and about two thousand wounded also in little over a week, when survivors of the onslaught of the early years joined the CSFA claim to hand over power to civilians without their tutelage.Indeed, the police action in Tahrir November was unequivocal demonstration that the slow process of democratic transition in Egypt was on the verge of collapse, generating an alarming degree of distrust of citizens.The country was practically the whole year between gears demands, protests from political and union strikes unthinkable under the Mubarak regime, but the pressure for tangible changes that led to demonstrations to accelerate the transition. Two moments of popular unrest reference to the management of the military were reported to the July and September events called "Friday of persistence", the first, and "correcting the course," the second.In July, the Egyptians demanded the resignation of President de facto head of CSFA, Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, and the urgent trial Mubarak, his two sons, Alaa and Gamal, and other former officials to whom, after dissimilar legal intrigues, began processing them.Analysts agreed that the prosecution of former ministers and others close to the deposed president were "cosmetic measures" to give the image of change, since many trials are still inconclusive, despite being, at least in the case of Mubarak, a predictable end.Two months later, Muslim, Christian and secular claims added to the end of July the trials of civilians in military courts, which were condemned by more than 12,000 activists.
The Egyptians felt that the CSFA promised breach the electoral calendar, except for the referendum to amend the Constitution and enforce a "Constitutional Declaration" endorsed by 77.2 per cent of the participants in the vote.However, the text was, at last, another trigger for the events of late years, especially with regard to the prominence given to the military leadership that despite rhetorical speeches, preserved the essence of the regime Mubarak.Groups interested in securing the status quo resulted in at least two occasions, clashes between Muslims and Copts, with the burning of churches and relentless intervention of the army and police that resulted in the death total of more than 40 Christians.During three prime ministers were appointed, two under the aegis of the CSFA and the last of them after the November crisis, as its predecessor insisted on imposing constitutional provisions in practice would leave the army above the law.The military command was forced to promise to cede power in mid 2012, after completing a complicated and time schedule for legislative and presidential elections in which foreshadowed early new episodes of political contention.The elections for the People's Assembly, beginning on November 28 and planned to end the incoming January 11, passed in relative calm, but did not prevent the paradigm crumble made by the U.S. and Europe.Thus, the nation of the Nile, where people got the dismantling of the former ruling National Democratic Party, lived a clear realignment of political forces, reckoning with the previous regime and the legalization of Islamist parties.But the so-called peaceful revolution was stained with blood several times, suffered a marked stagnation, the former Minister of Defense Mubarak (Tantawi) continues to command and Islamic old guard at the polls reflects the result of the revolt led largely by young laymen.