"Representatives of 190 countries agreed Sunday to extend beyond 2012 the landmark treaty to fight global warming. The negotiations lasted a little over two weeks."
This decision paves the way for the adoption of a "road map" for an agreement in 2015 on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as the implementation of a Green Fund, aimed at providing financial assistance to developing countries address climate change.
A decision on the future of the Kyoto Protocol, the only legally binding instrument, to limit emissions of greenhouse gases from most industrialized countries, was one of the key points of the climate summit in South Africa.
Developing countries, which are exempt from it, they strongly support it provides a "sealed wall" between the northern countries, who are responsible "historic" in the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere, and the rest of the planet.
The Protocol, signed in December 1997, entered into force in February 2005 and requires industrialized countries, with the notable exception of the United States that did not ratify, reduce their emissions of six substances responsible for global warming, mainly of CO2.
Delegates agreed on the launch of a second commitment period, which will concern mainly Europea. Canada Union, Japan and Russia have long noted that do not want to commit again.
One difference between the 27 European Union and India put in check the outcome of the conference. This difference was caused by a key on the main issue on the table at the conference: the creation of a legal regime that bind all the countries in the fight against climate change.
Europe called for the global legal system, which will be defined until 2015, is a "protocol" or an "instrument" with international legal force, while India claimed that it can be a "legal decision" lower-level legal . " How to give a blank check? How do I give a legally binding agreement the rights of 1,200 million people and others in the developing world? "he said in a heated speech the Environment Minister of India, who was supported by China, Brazil and the United States. "We're not talking about a lifestyle, but of survival," to ensure it will not accept legally claimed by Europe.
Europe won in El Salvador, small islands, Colombia and Chile. Both seemed to be gaining ground among members of the conference. "We live in highly vulnerable countries. On our island, a hurricane devastated in a few hours our economy. Our forests were devastated. All what we say, the most vulnerable planet to climate change, our people when we return? That did nothing to secure their future? "Said Karl Hood, head of the Grenadian delegation.
The meeting stood in the midst of high tension, but half hour later he returned to resume and the parties announced an agreement. "We have agreed”, said Environment Minister of India, Jayanthi Natarajan. The agreement was to change the version "legal decision" by a slightly stronger and two more words: "legally binding decision," said European Commissioner for Climate Connie Hedegaard.
Save the reef, the delegates of the 194-nation, exhausted after two weeks of intense meetings, preparing to pass a package of agreements on climate change.
The conference on Sunday became the largest of those held by the UN, and that lack of agreement is extended for two days and two nights of frantic meetings long beyond the expected. The aim of the conference is to meet commitments to limit the rise in global temperatures to a maximum of 2 º C. A study released at the conference indicated that current commitments to reduce emissions made by countries are inadequate and lead to a warming of 3.5 degrees.