While a student is learning a functional level of English at school, many other factors play a role outside the classroom. Like most skills, language is not learned in a vacuum. If the student’s parents speak no English, and are not in the process of learning English themselves, there will be little reinforcement at home to support the language learning process. The lack of regular “practice” of the language outside the classroom results in limited opportunities to apply what the student has learned.
If students watch American television, play video games in English or use websites constructed in English, they receive some reinforcement outside the classroom. These activities may even provide motivation for learning English faster in some cases. While it is difficult to ensure that any English is used outside school, it is impossible to ensure that there is proper reinforcement for correct English. This is another reason why many educators insist upon an English-only classroom. If students frequently hear the language used incorrectly, it will be difficult for them to master the correct usage of the language.
It is very important for teachers helping ELL students succeed in regular education classrooms to educate themselves about the language acquisition process. Teachers must assist in the meaning making process by contextualizing learning so that content being taught is relevant to students’ experiences with their families. They must also not allow the language barrier to interfere with a belief that ELL students can learn. High expectations are a key element for success in language development as well as learning in other disciplines. Teaches must be willing to learn about ELL students, their families, and their communities, in order to structure meaningful learning experiences.
The use of technology, recordings, videos and overheads can be used to emphasize language concepts. Students should be allowed to demonstrate their language acquisition through dramatization or video, with subtitles in their native language. Some programs endorse the use of translation devices in the classroom or electronic dictionaries. There is some debate however as to whether or not these forms of assistive technology actually defeat the purpose of English language learning.
Teachers should consider ways to include families and communities in the learning process. One possibility is to host presentations or entertainment nights so that students are able to show parents what they have learned. The community can be included as a means for support by inviting bilingual guests from the community to share their language-learning experiences with students.
ELL students will learn that language is a challenge for everyone, and that learning a second language becomes a valuable, admirable skill. Use cooperative and collaborative learning. Many ELL students learn best in small-group discussions where there is less pressure to speak perfectly. One teacher suggests introducing the entire class to a third language, to help instill empathy for the new language learners.
Visual aids also support learning among ELL students. The use of visuals includes nonverbal behavior such as pointing, body language, signals and gestures, as well as photos, videos and dramatizations. ELL students should be encouraged to use graphic organizers and to keep picture journals of the words they have learned. Writing journals and learning logs also support learning among ELL students. Look for alternative versions of text or novels and provide notes for lectures or presentations.