The sustainable development perspectives for food crisis and biofuels
Biofuels, fuels of renewable energy experience, a growing interest worldwide in recent decades, mainly as a substitute for fossil fuels. There are two types of biofuel demand in the global market for ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol, Dell Studio 1537 battery which comes from starch or other forms of sugar is produced from corn, potatoes, sugar cane, or potato, millet, cassava and more recently. Meanwhile, biodiesel is produced mainly in Germany and France, comes from the transesterification of oils extracted from ethanol or methanol-induced rapeseed, sunflower, soybean or palm oil (IEA, 2007).
Thus, the growth of ethanol and biodiesel, in recent years rapidly (Ajanovic, 2010;. Sordaa et al, 2010) has. Several factors may explain the increased demand and consumption, global goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the desire for independence to import fuel from politically unstable regions (to reduce Ajanovic 2010, he and Torre, 2007; and Timilsina Shrestha, 2010). In recent years many countries have different political objectives and fossil fuels with biofuels Dell Studio 1735 battery in Europe has to replace in case of 5.75% of the energy used for transportation come from biofuel by 2010, while the percentage was 10% in the U.S. 2020 (2010 Ajanovic; Sordaa et al, 2010) ..
Biofuels are being developed lately, but now in competition with the production of food consumption (Brown, 2008). The market for biofuels has also been associated, at least in part to rising Dell Vostro A840 battery prices of edible products, the experience led him to the most important global food crisis in 2008. The origin of this crisis is complex and appears to be related to several factors (Nellemann, 2009).
Between them, they need to 1) the green revolution of the postwar period, which influenced the forms of agricultural production, 2) the global population explosion, 3) the slowdown in economic growth and macroeconomic imbalances, 4) increase in prices oil and fertilizer, 5) decrease in inventories and increasing demand in developed countries that have a higher household income, 6) the decline in research and development in agriculture, 7) financial speculation eight experiments) the supply disruptions caused by weather conditions (Ajanovic, 2010, 2008 Payment; Werly, 2009). The SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery increase in prices, the result of these factors has led to nearly 130 million people below the poverty line according to the World Bank (Headey, 2010). Note that after several journalists and economists, Peter Brabeck (President of Nestle), (World Food Programme Manager) and (Director of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) to call the food crisis is not approved, come (Bias, 2009; Werly 2009, Cha, 2008; Clavreul 2008, Runge and Senauer, 2007). In addition, the year 2011 promises to be particularly difficult due to a significant increase in food prices.
According to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), biofuels also have their share of responsibility. In fact, they did the 30% SONY VGP-BPS12 battery increase in grain prices during the period 2000-2007 and an increase of 40% of the total price of corn (Tirado et al., 2010). Rising food prices are associated with an increased calorie deficit, and therefore can malnutrition among low-income population to increase. The use of edible products to produce biofuels as a "crime against humanity" was described by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Unit of the Human Rights Council of the United Nations (Tirado et al., 2010) . Therefore, the diversion of food to the energy sector is ethically questionable, Dell Latitude D830 battery and the overall impact analysis is needed before resuming production.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the increasing demand for biofuels on global food crisis, providing a fundamental key to sustainable economic development, social development and environmental protection.
Biofuels: Economic Aspects
Since food is below the world market price is due to specific factors that influence the supply (production), demand (consumption) and food supplies that the administration and are able to modulate the impact excess of various annual crops (California, 2009).
Production and consumption of food and biofuels
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has provided increased global food production per capita in constant since 1960. This Dell XPS M1530 battery applies to all continents, except Africa, where per capita production has increased in North Africa, right, and the sub-Saharan Africa has decreased trends. He said in reference to biofuels, increasingly in recent years (Figure 3). Almost 79000000000 gallons of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel combined) occurred in 2008. Note that ethanol, which largely surpassed the United States and Brazil, with a ratio of 01/06 (the ratio of 8.1 in 2005), the main European production of biodiesel (Martinot and Sawin 2009, IEA, 2007). To achieve this production, about 100 million tons of grain were used, the combination of 5% of world production of all cereals. Brown (2008) estimated that the U.S. has 20% of its annual production of ethanol from corn is turned on, while biofuels forces only 4% of transportation in the country. For some specific products for nearly 50% of them are used by the energy sector. This is the case of Brazil, including the Dell XPS M1730 battery uses half the harvest of sugar cane to produce ethanol.
As mentioned, not only food crops. Cereal production has three main markets: the direct use as food or immediately after the conversion simple and excise taxes used in the conversion of food, livestock feed, and, finally, to biofuels for energy.
Thus, the Dell XPS M1330 battery supply of and demand for food is influenced by several factors. Among these, requires the demographics, the growing demand for energy reduction in fossil fuels and the growing demand for meat in developing countries, summarized in the development of society. In addition to obtaining the above factors, supply and demand makes little foreign policy of many of the goals of sustainable development and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is characterized by the production and integration of biofuel in their attempt territories. For example, the objectives of biofuel production in Europe by 2015 a total of 130 million liters,Compaq Presario CQ60 battery and the United States for 2022 is approximately 140 billion liters. Recall that the production of bioethanol from corn in the United States less than 32 billion liters in 2007
Food, part of the global market, the SONY VGP-BPS13A/B battery price is influenced by several factors. First, oil prices affect food prices, especially since this area to harvest, production and transport to the consumer (Nellemann, 2009) is not necessary. Due to dependence on oil production and transportation of grain, there is a correlation between oil prices and food prices (FAO, 2008). This relationship is also evident, although the complexity of the relationship is not possible to draw definitive conclusions. A look at the evolution of oil prices and fluctuations in the price index for food could shed light on this relationship. The peak in 2008, according to the food crisis is more evident (Nellemann, 2009)!
Also, the price of fertilizers is also due to the price of oil and gas under the influence, as they require for their production. For example, the rising cost of fertilizers in the United States 8% between 2002 and 2007 (Ajanovic, 2010). Needless to say that the SONY VGP-BPS2 increase in fertilizer prices could also impact on food prices.
The price of food is also influenced by changes in the selection of agricultural production. Farming for energy seems to be more profitable than agriculture traditional food consumption. This in particular has led to the replacement of soy in Brazil for sugar cane and wheat to corn in the United States. The result of these changes in agriculture have higher prices and lower stocks of grain available for consumption (;. Torado et al, 2010 Ajanovic, 2010) were.
Finally, the expansion of crops for biofuel production in areas where the risk of large (with problems in the aquifer) are also affected by grain prices, creating greater scarcity (Torado et al., 2010).
First, the production and growing demand for biofuels from edible materials, food shortages, malnutrition and hunger in the world.
On the one hand, it is generally accepted that among low-income families, as found mainly in developing countries, spending on food is an important part of family income. As demand for biofuels could lead to food prices and a smaller number of seeds for food, it is possible to imagine that this SONY VAIO VGN-AR830E battery development will affect low-income families . It is also suggested that the FAO index of grain prices is reversed, with total quantities of grain for food aid from international organizations is sent to the related problems of increasing hunger among the poor (FAO, 2008). Also note that almost 80% of the population lives in developing countries and this figure reached almost 85% in 2030 (FAO, 2005). Much of the population lives in sub-Saharan Africa and India, two major grain consumption (FAO, 2005). For example, sub-Saharan Africa, more than 30% of the population in 2003 (FAO, 2009) malnourished provides almost 12% of world population and should be used for almost 16% of which in 2030 accounts. Scenarios with an estimated malnutrition in children also show an Asus Eee PC 900 battery increase of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa in 2020 (Smith and Haddad, 2000).
On the other hand, production and demand for biofuels from edible substances, malnutrition and hunger, increasing the use of large amounts of water for irrigation. In fact, agriculture is the human activity that requires the highest water consumption. Nearly 70% of water used on the planet for this purpose (Brown, 2008). The pressure on global water resources are perceived negatively by others, reducing the efficiency of agricultural production in some regions of the world, including India, China, Middle East, Mexico, United States of America. (Brown, 2008).
Although the percentage of water for the production of biofuels from marginal (estimated at 1.4%) used to irrigate food crops in general (de Fraiture and Bringezu Howarth and Berndes, 2009), some water problems of accessibility expected in comparison, especially in developing countries, where access is limited and the water is used mainly for cooking and meet the basic needs of hydration. If so, the demand for food in a matter of demographics, the application is added to biofuels Asus Eee PC battery to meet global goals to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, therefore, greatly increase grain production through the expansion of cultivated area and increase the yield per hectare to meet global needs. This finding implies a likely increase in irrigation and can reduce the water available from the local population. Note that the effects of malnutrition have been closely associated with lack of access to water quality (Smith and Haddad, 2000) attached.
Finally, increased production and demand for first generation biofuels can also be some political crisis caused by the practice of agrocolonialisme (neo) the practice of buying or leasing of land by foreign countries for their water problems and decreased Asus A32-F3 battery production of cereals per person (Gilland, 2006). This is also the explosion of the food crisis of 2008 (Biney, 2009) and the number of surfaces involved is enormous. In the media, spoke of "land grabbing", which translates as "the land plundered." Hafiz (2009) cites a United Nations report, a series of 30 million hectares (agricultural area of France) is called in the transaction or acquired by the countries with significant financial resources and must be fast growing.
Sun South Korea has acquired 700 000 hectares in Sudan, Saudi Arabia has 500 000 hectares in Tanzania and India has acquired nearly 350,000 acres in Africa. These three examples are a small minority of transactions, and is based on the agricultural land area cultivated in Belgium, Guinea Bissau (Gilland, 2006; FAOSTAT, 2009). Another transaction, which the company has not confirmed the Asus Eee PC 1201 battery purchase by China of 2.8 million hectares in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this time for biodiesel production (Von Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009).
In fact, "plundered the country," the phenomenon that caused the political crisis in Madagascar in March 2009 and led to the cancellation of the transaction of 1.3 million hectares of Daewoo (South Korea) and government (Meinzen-Dick and von Braun, 2009).
Biofuels: environmental aspect
Soil and Water Quality
The production and demand for biofuels on water quality and soil. First, as mentioned above, the production of grain (and biofuels) requires large amounts of water. De Fraiture and Berndes (in Howarth and Bringezu, 2009) estimate that 800-3300 liters of water are needed to produce Asus Eee PC 701 battery one liter of bioethanol produced from sugar cane, and 1500-7400 liters are needed for the production of corn. These figures are highly dependent on the degree of irrigation necessary for agriculture. The plantations of sugar cane in Brazil, for example, receive more rainfall than that of India, a country must be offset by increased irrigation of their crops.
To counter problems of food and energy, has proposed to increase the surface area and / or increase performance. Increasing agricultural production is mainly due to higher yields, with the exception of the soybean area has been greatly expanded to (Nellemann, 2009). The SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery yield has risen steadily since the green revolution, but a blanket and a price that modern agriculture has to offer. Performance depends on several factors, including the types of fertilizers. Needless to say that the increase in performance with a lot of fertilizer and water has an impact on the quality of soil and water (Ajanovic, 2010).
Adding that the environmental risks, such as the depletion of local water resources and contamination of ecosystems with fertilizers, particularly on the part of foreign owners of expropriated land "does not have to suffer the consequences of their own territories (Hafez, 2009) by fear.
Wheatfield and biodiversity
The amount of raw materials for biofuels are important. For example, 2.5 pounds of grain are needed to make one liter of ethanol from raw corn 13.3 kg of sugar (de Fraiture and Bringezu Howarth and Berndes, 2009). The entire vehicle fuel with biofuels to replace 30 million Dell XPS M1330 battery barrels of ethanol and 23 million barrels of biodiesel per day. This leads to 300 million hectares of cane sugar and 590 million acres of corn. Also to satisfy the demand for biodiesel would require 225 million hectares of palm oil, 20 times higher than that of existing plantations (De La Torre Ugarte, and he, 2007; Ajanovic, 2010). Note that one of the known effects of this transformation of ecosystems, a greater loss of biodiversity.
Greenhouse gas emissions
It is assumed that emissions of greenhouse gases due to the use of biofuels in general much lower than the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is generally accepted that the transformation of land and forests to agricultural crops, such as starch or sugar, cause a special issue of carbon dioxide Dell Latitude D630 battery and other greenhouse gases, mainly through the collection methods and soil and the controlled combustion with 'use of fertilizers such as nitrogen oxides, gases that emit-300 times more potent than carbon dioxide (Ajanovic 2010, Tirado and others., 2010).
Other generations of biofuels, a solution?
The vast majority of the studies cited so far to reduce the negative impact of the use of edible products to produce biofuels. However, there are other alternatives for the production of biofuels, such as the use of non-food resources. These technologies use cellulose and lignin from agricultural residues (straw, corn cobs) or wood to produce ethanol and animal fats and vegetable oils for diesel fuel (IEA, 2007). These alternatives Dell Precision M4400 battery are called second-generation biofuels and seems very interesting, especially because 1) the competitive impact of biofuel production reduced in relation to food, 2) emissions of greenhouse gases, the depletion of 3) encourage greater energy efficiency and 4), would be fewer chemicals to grow (Sordaa et al, 2010;. Ajanovic, 2010).
Techniques for the production of ethanol from woody material and other products are still in development. In contrast, the cultivation of jatropha is (ground unfit for consumption, but also for the synthesis of bio-fuels) is not very different from that of palm oil and, therefore, Dell Vostro 1510 battery not without technical difficulties. Jatropha requires only small amounts of water and is very resistant to drought and pests.
Therefore, the second-generation biofuels are promising. However, a study that compares the life cycle of corn and its suppression in the production of ethanol with production of energy from fossil fuels has noted that these alternatives have been exhausted or the floor. Even if the attack is the best environment (not organic, economic),Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery will still need to replenish lost nutrients in the soil, when they recovered the attack, but rather as a natural fertilizer (Luo et al., 2009) uses.
Another route, this time without any impact on the soil surface is the use of algae to produce energy in various forms (gas, ethanol, methane and hydrogen). This production is a relatively new third-generation biofuels. After Pienkos and Darzins (2009), focuses most of the route of the promotion of research on extracting oil from algae to produce diesel. This process is still in a phase of mass production, but this sector is booming, as the yield per hectare of algae seems much older than the number of terrestrial biomass (more than 13 times that of soybeans). This process is also interesting because the algae easily in an aqueous environment, brackish or wastewater can be cultivated. However, some technological hurdles to overcome before any real benefit for the costs of collection and SONY VGP-BPS13 battery production remains very important.
And 'now clear that the market for biofuels has had a tangible impact on the food crisis in 2008 and adopted more ambitious targets of various countries in the coming years. Thus, the European targets for the use of biofuels in the area have been revised downwards in 2008.
Economically, the relationship between agricultural production for energy and rising food prices is relatively clear. Note that the SONY VGP-BPL13 battery increase in prices of agricultural products and oil for the year 2008 75 million undernourished people worldwide have been added. Ironically, the only U.S. bioethanol production in 2008 could be about 80 kg of maize each of undernourished in the world (; Dubuis, 2009 Brown, 2008) has provided. The decline in grain reserves, despite an increase in output per person launching some legal discussions of particular importance to the free food for speculation in the stock market.
On the social level could support the growing production of biofuels with increased socio-political tensions in some countries, including the phenomenon may be related to "land sacked." SONY VGP-BPL8 battery Should increase beyond an ethical question, not the convenience of the dedication of agricultural production for energy in the diet.
Finally, the environment, biofuel production has a significant impact on soil pollution, both in quality and quantity of water for personal use. The massive use of fertilizers and pesticides and enormous water requirements for Asus Tablet PC battery biofuel production are important considerations for this purpose.
The second-generation biofuels and the third seems that the future solutions through fuel efficiency and reduce the total cost of land and air pollution. However, it is important if not essential, to fully evaluate the SONY VGP-BPS22 battery impact of these new technologies before their massive exploitation.