Nuclear deterrence remains today and has long been a key element of our defense. The consensus is clear that the years of the Cold War, not accompanied by the prevention of deep differences of opinion. We recognize the fact that nuclear weapons provided by ideological reasons, because it was opposed by the terrible temper. Remains and will be tomorrow. But this is not the apocalyptic vision of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Asus EEE PC 1201HA Battery making it the first time in the history of the conflict as a handicap?
Without getting into philosophical debate, nor against the two fields, one can still think that Compaq Presario CQ70 battery was a driving force for stability during the Cold War, and will continue to play a similar role at a time when the spread of weapons of mass destruction destruction mass is potentially the seed of a threat of more and more evident in European countries in general and particularly in France.
Therefore, at this stage I want to paint the first picture of the situation in the world and the current French nuclear force in place, including the provision for our country, the main trends for the future than large weapons systems, use the challenges posed by the strategy of nuclear deterrence in all directions, Asus Eee PC 900 battery as defined in the White Paper and reiterated in the latest military budget law.
Current status of nuclear facilities
It is useful to place our nuclear forces in the community of other countries with these funds in order to better understand the situation that is likely to find in the next 20 to 30. Almost 15 years after the end of the Cold War, bipolar world dominated by the nuclear arms race has changed dramatically Asus Eee PC 1000 battery and the five official nuclear powers are now in one direction and is caused by several factors:
The first is the reduction of weapons contracts
The second is that the budgets, the U.S. budget for nuclear weapons from three split between 1990 and 1999. The Russian economic crisis.
The third episode of the former Soviet Union and its impact on the industrial base, particularly in the field of ballistic missiles.
Finally, the last appearance of a part of India and Pakistan with nuclear capability, according to studies in 1998. These two new nuclear powers to develop both nuclear warheads and delivery systems which can be classified as an intercontinental day. His teachings were developed with different levels of maturity, Asus Eee PC battery may be different, but with real commitment. The Pakistan seems to be more concerned about their neighbors. But India is, of course, a broader policy of deterrence, that is for China to implement. In addition, the ability of Israel is no longer in doubt and the efforts of Iran and North Korea in their efforts to access nuclear weapons are a problem
As for the two nuclear superpowers, as well as the United States and Russia, the development of NSF is quantitatively regulated by the arms reduction treaties. START-1 Treaty, signed in 1991,SONY VAIO VGN-FW battery driven by an increase in 10 years, the number of strategic nuclear warheads on both sides, from 10,000 to 6,000. START 2 treaty has been abandoned, but it was the Moscow Treaty, signed in May 2002 replaced. His goal, in 2012 the two stocks to a level TN 1700-2200 (maybe 2200 for the United States and Russia for 1700) to reduce.
However, qualitatively, the programs have been initiated to improve and modernize several years.
On the side of the United States were the most important events that drove the change of strategic forces in succession, the Nuclear Posture Review, SONY VAIO VGN-FW378J/B battery called NPR in 2001 and the termination of the ABM missiles in June 2002. Above all, the forces of strategic offensive nuclear and non nuclear: NPR is a new concept of deterrence, the United States now developed
Second defense, missiles, embodied in the missile defense program, the first interceptor was put into operation by September of this year,
Finally, an industrial reagent.
Therefore, U.S. forces in the process of strategic change. The nuclear part is ready to continue its 14 nuclear-powered ballistic missile, the range 2-12000 km Trident build. This SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery component is the heart of the American deterrent. In addition, an assistance program of the quality of life of Trident is already running and the production of 115 additional missiles are planned between 2008 and 2013. The submarines will remain in operation today until 2042.
The ground floor consists of 500 Minuteman 3, SONY VGP-BPS13A/B battery will also benefit from a modernization program of $ 6 million to extend its life until 2020. Meanwhile, begin to develop a new ballistic missile (Minuteman Elite) to implement by 2018.
Note that studies to improve the accuracy of ballistic missiles in place in order to carry non-nuclear warheads, making them capable of hitting a target at 30 'with an accuracy of one meter, however, with the use of nuclear fire.
The current B-52H bombers and B-2 has a limited number of nuclear bombs and cruise missiles. A program of study is to develop a new generation. Early work in 2013 is scheduled for commissioning in 2037
Note that the British deterrent is currently carried out through its four SSBNs, which are equipped with Trident America. Only the nuclear charge is to examine the national design.
Russia has now more of the axes of the effort, despite financial difficulties. The ground floor has always been at the forefront as a deterrent, as the continent of this country and its restrictions on access to the sea to land 600 missiles are still in use. The modern SS-27 will be deployed in silos, from 6 to 10 years. The Asus Eee PC 901 battery development of mobile version of extremes. For its part, Russia seabed, has 14 nuclear submarines. In addition, three new-generation SSBN, the Borey, under construction in the shipyards of Severodvinsk. And 'since 2007 a new missile to be equipped with dust, the Bulava (over 8,000 km range), whose development is in progress. A sputum test end of September 2004 was mapped by fire subsea development takes place. Finally, a long-range bombers steps in the development and implementation is scheduled to begin in 2010.
NSF in China is also based on a triad. Several characteristic points: the low number first, and then the slow development since the first machines have been in 50 years with Soviet help, Asus Eee PC 701 battery and independently developed 60 years after the collapse of relations with the Soviet army. However, China is modernizing its armed forces dramatically.
Ground-ground missiles are liquid propulsion, the range 2800-13000 km and following solid propulsion craft, the DF-21, DF-31 and DF-31A, which replaces the use of prescription Missile Defense. The focus is on expanding the mobile and it is likely that the number of nuclear warheads is growing, but not violently. Also note that China has the Asus Eee PC 1201N battery technical capability of the missile Mirvis, although not yet implemented. The DF-31 is a revolutionary new motor vehicle of three solid phases that the range of 8,000 km. This is a head and commissioning started last year.
For a power of the ocean, China Xia SSBN SSBN decided only by a new generation will be equipped with JL-2 will be replaced by the DF-31 comes close and has similar properties, for example, 8,000 km range, 3-stage solid propellant and a 300 kt TN. There is talk of a distribution from April to June SSBNs. Finally, SONY VGP-BPS12 battery with regard to nuclear-capable bombers, bombers, now 120, H-6 and Q-5 will each win a nuclear bomb.
Israel's nuclear deterrence capability is not recognized officially, but it is believed that the number of nuclear weapons by the Jewish state could be based weapons 100-200. The application is guaranteed by Jericho ballistic missiles and bombers.
India conducted its nuclear tests in 1998 and has mastered all the missile technology (liquid propulsion, solid propulsion, materials, guidance, control, etc.). This country has two main programs. First, the tactical Prithvi ballistic missile program, liquid fuels and is used to provide in 1998 in two versions, the respective range of 150 and 250 km. This machine is equipped with engines derived from the surface-to-air SA-2 missiles equipped. Then SONY VAIO VGN-FW350DH battery began the solid propellant missile Agni and Agni a second (700 km range and 2500, respectively), their use in 2004. Another version is to ensure development within a target range of 3,500 km, a value considered essential for the long-term deterrence against China, which covers a vast area of Beijing and the Chinese military-industrial complex. The first blow of development is expected before the end of 2004.
Pakistan has also completed its first nuclear test in 1998. Its ballistic missile program is organized in two ways. The first is that the class liquid rocket Ghauri, a missile the North Korean Nodong derivative. Pakistan has a range of 1,500 kilometers with a payload of 700 kg. Other SONY VGP-BPL8 battery changes may follow, each time with an increase in the range. The second stream is the Shaheen-class solid-rocket. And 'the result of the experience of Pakistan and kept sounding rockets in the links with China. The Shaheen 2, which first flew in March 2004 has a range of 2,500 km.
Iran and North Korea
Finally, other powers are distinguished by their willingness to access a deterrent. The most important are Iran and North Korea, but also for others. Iran, whose nuclear program is of increasing concern to the international community Shahab ballistic missile operating 1,500 km, SONY VGP-BPL13 battery which is derived from the North Korean Nodong. Improved versions could go well beyond the cover and in Europe. North Korea is also developing a nuclear program and has long been the opportunity to develop ballistic missiles and Nodong Taepodong that flew over Japan in 1998 are proof. Other long-range missiles are under development.
The five major nuclear countries, therefore, a policy of nuclear deterrence, despite the collapse of the Soviet bloc and preserved, despite all the pressure to be opponents of any kind. Two of them, the United States and Russia clearly above the others in terms of number of launchers and warheads. Russia, despite facing enormous economic problems and related diseases, in particular, to get their conventional armed forces,SONY VGP-BPS8 battery still a substantial effort to the strategic nuclear weapons systems in working condition or modernization. Three countries have a triad, the United States, Russia and China, while Britain has decided that its nuclear deterrent for the '(Mer Sol strategic ballistic) MSB American made and sent to the base SSBNs.
France, meanwhile, SONY VGP-BPS11 battery has an intermediate option, for obvious reasons of economy, but also common sense. He decided to stay with two components: the MSB undoubtedly the backbone of our deterrent force and ASMP (air medium-range land). I take this opportunity to talk about the (strategic ballistic Sun Sun) recall SSB for almost 30 years, has maintained a continuous alarm and never in its mission with an exceptional availability and its supposed weakness was much more limited than some of his critics willing to listen. Therefore, in addition to the undeniable aspect of the survey provides financial pressure, SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery studies have been conducted in recent years, an M45 based on where the Plateau d'Albion.
Our systems have been developed taking into account the ballistic missile defense as part of the ABM Treaty of 1972 was between the U.S. and the USSR signed, SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery used to date. Only the latter is implemented. So, we have the size to penetrate through appropriate measures against our ability to apply these defenses by integrating the effectiveness of all the sensors that are potentially dangerous in all phases of flight of a rocket aimed nuclear warheads were then. Therefore, the requirement for the entire spectrum of threats ranging from exploration satellites to intercept missiles at high altitudes and low, early-warning radar and radar transmission of the final battle for responsible leadership interceptor warheads. This titanic struggle was, of course, deserves generation command, control, communications, high-performance, Asus Tablet PC battery without which it is not realistic, a defense against ballistic missiles of that name.
If the fiscal framework in the growth phase of nuclear deterrence has been favorable, since the proportion of Title V of the nuclear power plant has increased to just over 33% in the 70's, of course, since then a steady decline in borrowing costs, has led to drop below 20%. It 'also interesting to note that, if good Asus A32-F3 battery intentions are the laws of military planning - also voted in a very different political sensibilities - but elected under the pressure of Bercy, these intentions have not materialized in the annual budget law and even less in its running.
Nuclear systems, Asus A42-A3 battery such as what happens is, the conventional long-term programs. Today the possibility of making assumptions about the future changes in the medium and long-term geostrategic is not always easy to understand. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact in this sense is an indication of the lack of transparency in the short term.
On average, it takes ten years in a complex weapon system, Asus A6 battery which remain in the service of developing 25-30 is therefore essential that these systems offer the flexibility and scalability to adapt to threats in the middle of the century followed a decision on the front of the admission .
This has been regularly used to produce nuclear energy. In general, holders of the weapons are slower than the previous development. This was the first Mirage IV A and IV-D arm sequence AN22 and ASMP, there are several generations of ballistic missiles in 1971,SONY VAIO VGN-AR830E battery after the MSB SSBS M1 to M20 and then the M4 particularly successful, where three generations of nuclear warheads to achieve more , the power and stealth, while the land of the missiles are not subject to major changes.
SSBNs and SLBMs in consideration of which is undoubtedly the most important component is discrete, it is interesting to note that only four countries in the world to develop the know-how and use our weapons system this complex of the United States, Russia, China and France. We can be proud of this small group of elites, especially since we had no experience in this field, as it came to the diversification of the implementation of the Mirage IV, opposing defenses with ways to enter the field of ballistics. And 'history, which explains the existence of the system that we control SSBS best available technology and would be able to use before the submarine component. In fact, our engineers Sherebiah (Society for the exploration and development of ballistic missiles, which are in the air during the merger of Northern and Southern Air Transport Aviation built in 1971) has managed to overcome all the problems in water output, better and faster than they thought. Thus the ground-ground HP Pavilion DV9500 battery component is installed on a provisional that would last almost 30 years!
The future of ballistic systems
The missile M4, the first to be able to bear a burden, now everything is up, where his military obligations in the final stages of development and maturation. He knew in his youth, the submarine is called the type of inheritance and armed with nuclear warheads rigid type 70 and 71, while maintaining the same unit of stages of development. However, given the development of the immune system, a new adaptation of the system component sub weapon was necessary. It is not always the same as the M4 M45 missile base, suitable for a submarine of the next generation of triumph,HP Mini 1000 battery and the bold, but with new faces like 75 stealth always accompanied by penetration aids that today for sure: "Today, their share of durability of Sea NG third SSBN, Le Vigilant, which is currently being tested before entry into active service, is to take an underwater heritage with the same type of rocket. Today This component represents about 90% of our global system deterrence.
We prepare the rest with a new generation of missiles, the requirements which have been made for political power: Increase first increase in mass and volume load, the range compared to the M45, and ultimately reduce the total cost of the program.
The first requirement is essential, since the cessation of nuclear testing in the Pacific and the simulation program will be created for the future development of nuclear weapons to impose these new features of robustness, security. That inevitably leads to a significant increase in the size and weight. The doubling of the volume available at the top solves the problem was intractable with the current generation of rockets.
The second relates to our strategy of deterrence in all directions. The distance between a dry ignition timing and possible targets located near Brest makes it clear that we have a system that would eventually be up to 11,000 km. Note that in this context, the four other major nuclear powers HP 395789-001 battery have no missiles or up to 14,000 km. No one can predict the intentions of a country outside the horizon of the M51, although now there are no ballistic weapons. It is worth remembering that all those who have done this kind of weapons are also in the business of space launch, and also talks about nuclear energy for civilian purposes. If necessary, there would be a small step for those who have decided that now is limited to the civilian sector!
The third condition is to perform a search for cost reduction that goes hand in hand with the continuing decline in defense spending and, in particular the section on nuclear power is necessary. This research since the program began, playing with different parameters of the rules of organizational development,HP 416996-131 battery technology or performance started a significantly lower cost than the M51 M4 program.
However, cost reduction is not imposed arbitrarily and unilaterally. Have the consequences of decisions on changes in the financing of a particular service that actually change the program flow, the elimination of activities or quizzes, tests and checks in a different way. This also applies to existing efforts is essential to prepare the preliminary studies to address the reality of the future, in order to develop a program already designed and installed to maintain the tracks. The probability that the stagnation of the day or the other increases with time and pay for the ignorance of the technical difficulties to achieve, is inevitable. As a general rule,HP Pavilion DV5 battery in the open in an early test flights. As an indication, I think it's important for the first launch of Ariane V could not remember a time when, encouraged by a successful series at home with Ariane IV, who felt the full control of access to space. How useless is removed. But what a dramatic impact on cost overruns, delays of commercial flights and brand throughout the European space community! The M51 program was officially launched in 1992, is running in the fourth SSBN in 2010, the Terrible. The top 75 will be composed initially of TN, HP 510 battery with a load equal to the current M45. It was not until 2015 to see the arrival of the new nuclear TNO heads (heads of the Ocean).
The second component
Finally, we discuss the second HP Pavilion DV5000 battery component of air. Should be seen as a complementary component of the MSB system came to fix known defects, but as an integral part of which has its own qualities. In addition to its ability to diversify the path complicate the problems for any defense is an important political capital "pose" in a crisis, and may be a requirement, the various measures of political progress and distribution, voluntary and open to show the views all agents of observation. Also, avoid all the "eggs in one basket."